By B. Hogar. Stamford International College. 2019.
Neural: sympathetic nerves (Th6 L3) vasoconstrictioin discount zudena 100mg online, only during orthostasis purchase zudena 100mg overnight delivery, physical effort buy 100 mg zudena free shipping, stress. Humoral: - catecholamines vasoconstriction - renin-angiotensin aldosterone system vasoconstriction - system kallikreins bradykinin 39 - kalidin Hageman f. Stimuli intrinsic reaction prorenin molecules are converted by tissue kallikrein renin. After exceeding of Tm the transport mechanism is saturated and the substance occurs in the urine. Glycosuria in hyperglycemia > 10 mmol/l = renal threshold for glucose TmG in men = approx. Functions of the Collecting Ducts Changes in osmolarity and volume mainly by means of the countercurrent multiplication system: Fig. Two tubes separated by semipermeable membrane with ability to transport molecules of a substance in one-way. If the tubes are fulfilled with a stationary fluid the activity of the membrane increases the concentration of the substance in tube A. When the fluid flows the mostly concentrated fluid will be accumulated at the beginning of the tube B. Application of the countercurrent system in kidneys + - Descending limb of the Henles loop is permeable for water and Na + - The ascending limb of the loop is relatively impermeable to water and permeable to Na, - Cl, urea. Interstitial hypertonicity is supported also by active resorption of Na form the duct to the interstitium. Descending vasa penetrate to the hypertonic portion there water diffuses out of the vessels and in the hypotonic portion water diffuses into the vessels. Recirculation of the water and the solutes from and into vasa recta helps to maintain hypertonicity. Concentrated and darker in early morning less water excreted at night but unchanged amounts of urinary solids. Odour: Aromatic when fresh ammoniacal on standing due to bacterial decomposition of urea to ammonia. Creatinine - from breakdown of body tissues; uninfluenced by amount of dietary protein. Ammonia - formed in kidney from glutamine brought to it by blood stream; [In the newborn, volume and specific gravity are low and composition varies. Smooth muscle coats distend as urine collects: contract periodically to expel urine to urethra. When bladder is empty and beginning to fill - inhibition of parasympathetic - activation of sympathetic Relaxation of bladder wall. In older children and adults reflex can be controlled and inhibited voluntarily. Stimulus: Distension of the receptors in smooth muscle When empty, pressure in bladder is zero. When 50 ml urine collectpressure to 10 cm H2O up to 300 or 400 ml little increase in pressure. Sensations to consciousness Micturition center: Parasympathetic S2 S4 Sympathetic efferents L1-3 - inhibits ganglia Efferent pathways: Impulses in parasympathetic nerves (pelvici)and in somatic nerves (pudendal). Differentiation of stimulus intensity: 1) by differences in action potentials firing rate 2) by differences in the number of activated receptors Intensive stimuli activation other receptors and sensory units = recruitment of sensory units. Spinothalamic tract 1) Neospinothalamic fast pain A fibres the tract passes upward to the brain in the anterolateral columns to the thalamus. Referred pain: When pain is referred it is to a structure that is developed from the same embryonic segment (dermatome) as the structure in which the pain originates = dermatomal rule. Changes in pain perception 1) Hyperalgesia 2) Hypoalgesia peripheral: stimulation of tactile and pressure receptors reduces pain perception (acupressure, acupuncture, massage) centraly: Psychogenic mechan. Physiological and pharmacological principles of the analgesia treatment of pain 49 Distracting techniques (controlled breathing, rhythmic tapping,. Afferent pathway: Sensitive fibers Centers: In spinal cord, medulla oblongata, hypothalamus. Acetylcholine - synthesis: cholin+acetylCo A (acetyltransferase) - inactivation: acetylcholinesterase: cholin+acetate Cholin the uptake for the resynthesis Ach very short effect duration Receptors for Ach - nicotinic (N) receptors - in the synapses between the pre- and postganglionic neurons, in the neuromuscular junction - muscarinic (M) receptors: postggl. Autonomic tone and excitability Tone there are discharges in autonomic nerves at rest reflex: (stimulation of baro-, chemoreceptors) central (hypothalamus) 58 sympathetic (e. Cardiovascular system the variability of cardiovascular parameters short-term, long-term Ewing battery of cardiovascular tests deep breathing orthostatic test Valsalva manoeuvre hand-grip test other cardiovascular tests oculocardiac test, diving reflex, mental and physical load. Psychosomatic relationships cerebral cortex the influence on the respiratory, cardiovascular, immune, autonomic and other systems relationships - cortex - organs organs - cortex efferent influences of the cerebral cortex: 1. Visual pathways: Collaterals of optic tract: Hypothalamus (circadian rhythm) Pretectal nuclei (accomodation, pupillary light reflex) Superior colliculus (eye movements) Field of vision: -visual area seen at given moment - monocular, binocular - blind spot (15 deg. Floaters (muscae volitantes) -slowly drifting transparent blobs of varying size and shape -particularly noticeable when lying on the ground looking up at the sky -caused by imperfections in the fluid of the eye 2. Scheerer`s phenomenon = blue field phenomenon -noticeable when viewed against a field of pure blue light - tiny bright dots moving rapidly along squiggly lines in the visual field -caused by leucocytes moving in the capillaries in front of retina 3. External ear the pinna (helps to direct sounds), the external auditory meatus, auditory Canal transmits sound waves to the tympanic membrane 2. Middle ear separated from extrenal ear by tympanic membrane (called eardrum), chain of ossicles the malleus, the incus, and the stapes. Eustachian tube connects middle ear to the pharynx and equilizes pressure differences between external and mid. Inner ear bony and membraneous labyrinth (cochlea and vestibular apparartus), receptors for two sensory functions. Cochlea spiral-shaped organ, divided by basal and Reissneri membranes to three parts scala tympani and scala vestibuli by perilymph (helicotrema), between scala media by endolymph). On basal membrane organ og Corti with receptors hair cells Adequate stimulus for auditory receptors sound - sound is produced by waves of compression and decompression transmitted in air (or other media such as water), propagation in the air 335 m/s - sound composed of many unrelated frequencies - noise - frequency (nm. The vibrations are transferred by the ossicular system through the oval window on the structures of inner ear (by the vawe movement of perilymph) - stimulation of the organ of Corti causes action potencials in nerve fibres function of mm. Axons penetrate the base of the skull through openings in the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone as olfactory nerve filaments (fila olfactoria) to olfactory bulb. Stimulation of the olfactory cells - olfactory receptors telereceptors - they response to the odorant substance (gas) in inhaled air dissolved in the mucus 66 - chemical interaction with the membrane of the cilia + - they evoke receptor (generator) potencial by changing permeability of membrane for Na - fast adaptation - in humans ability to distinguish between 2 4000 different odors - the olfactory cells the highest degree of chemical discrimination Intensity of the stimulus depends on concentration of the odor substance (the number of stimulated receptors and the number of moleculs reaching the cell) Quality of perception depends on concentration: at low c. Function of the muscle spindle Receptors - active at rest stretching of the muscle activation of the anulospiral endings higher frequency of the impulses facilitation of the alfa motoneurons of the its own muscle. Pavlov) - originated during development = mechanisms for assurance of ability to survive and live classification: - apetitive - protective - orientation - sexual Innate mechanisms: 1. Drive: - processes which represent an immediate response to fundamental necessities of the body - they force the human to fill the needs - after filling the needs - antidrive 3. Storing of encoded information biochemical, biophysical and electrophysiological processes 3. Each receptor is highly specific for a single hormone Principal mechanisms: 1) Confirmational changes of the receptor alter the membrane permeability to ions.
Current guidelines from other international orga- In the future best purchase zudena, older adults may be using newer technology for nizations are shown in Table 2 zudena 100mg line. A randomized controlled trial of basal-bolus this patient population are equivocal (219 100mg zudena amex,220), although they may injection therapy vs. The tive for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in carefully selected ability to use more advanced pump features and the basal/bolus ratio older people with diabetes (222224). Finally, older people with diabetes are at increased risk for falls Depression and fractures, and insulin therapy and sulfonylureas increase this risk (192,193). Depression is common in older people with diabetes, and a sys- tematic approach to the treatment of this illness not only improves Prevention and Treatment of Complications quality of life, but reduces mortality (225). While screening for depression is not recommended, maintaining a high index of sus- Hypertension picion is advisable. Treatment of isolated systolic hyper- Survey from Norway showed a signicant increase in hip fracture tension may also preserve renal function in older people with dia- rates among females with type 1 diabetes compared to females betes (199). In selected popu- this should be modied for people with diabetes with multiple lations, deprescribing should be considered to reduce complexity comorbidities and limited life expectancy. The current guidelines of therapy, side effects and adverse drug interactions (235). Drugs from other international organizations and Diabetes Canada are that can be considered rst for deprescribing in these individuals shown in Table 2. There has been signicant improvement in the include statins and sulfonylureas, because of lack of benet in people number of older people treated for hypertension, and therapies being with limited life expectancy and concerns about hypoglycemia, used are more consistent with current clinical practice guidelines respectively. In the older person with diabetes and multiple comorbidities and/or frailty, type 2 diabetes (241). Antihyperglycemic agents that increase the risk of as a result of advances of glucose management and adults being hypoglycemia or have other side effects should be discontinued in these diagnosed with type 1 diabetes later in life, which requires the imple- people [Grade C, Level 3 (235,253)]. Older people who are able should receive diabetes education with an empha- ommended target (<7. It has been shown sis on tailored care and psychological support [Grade A, Level 1A (24)]. The well as maintain functional status and reduce the risk of frailty [Grade B, short-term substitution of a regular diet or a standard nutritional Level 2 (7377)]. Sub- therapy to metformin because of a lower risk of hypoglycemia stitution of regular insulin by lispro insulin at meal time may [Grade B, Level 2 (137)] improve glycemic control with reduced number of hypoglycemic b. Meglitinides may be used instead of glyburide to reduce the risk of mortality between treatment groups (252). Considerations for Renal Impairment) at frequent intervals and higher glycemic targets are recommended for this high-risk popu- 10. Detemir, glargine U-100 and U-300 and degludec may be used instead lation (see above). Appropriate discon- tinuation of antihyperglycemic medication in older people who have 11. In older people, premixed insulins and prelled insulin pens should be tight glycemic control can potentially reduce risk of hypoglyce- used to reduce dosing errors and to potentially improve glycemic control [Grade B, Level 2 (166,167)]. Sliding scale (reactive) and correction (supplemental) insulin protocols interprofessional team (254). Improvement in diabetes self-ecacy and Glycemic Management in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes, p. Age Ageing 2009;38:219 Pharmacologic Glycemic Management of Type 2 Diabetes in 25. S178 urgent situations using telemedicine case management for older patients with Treatment of Hypertension, p. Improved glycemic control without hypoglyce- mia in elderly diabetic patients using the ubiquitous healthcare service, a new p. The effects of a web-based intervention on psychosocial well-being among adults aged 60 and older with diabetes: A ran- domized trial. The effects of a web-based intervention on the physical outcomes associated with diabetes among adults age 60 and older: Appendix 7. Health services outcomes for a diabetes disease man- agement program for the elderly. Diabetes disease management in Author Disclosures Medicare Advantage reduces hospitalizations and costs. Meneilly reports personal fees from Merck, Novo Nordisk, controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled trial. Effect of a 36-month pharmaceutical care program on pharmacotherapy adherence in elderly dia- Sano; grants and personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, Janssen, betic and hypertensive patients. Diabetes self-management programmes in investigator-initiated funding from AstraZeneca. Prim Care Diabe- grams and Advisory Boards from the following companies: Eli Lilly, tes 2016;10:17985. No other authors have anything in older individuals: Results from the Action for Health in Diabetes Type 2 dia- to disclose. Assessment of barriers to improve diabe- tes management in older adults: A randomized controlled study. Better glycemic control is associated with mainte- patients with insulin resistance and cerebrovascular disease. Diabetes Care nance of lower-extremity function over time in Mexican American and Euro- 2016;39:168492. Association of diabetes, comorbidities, ment and teaching programme on non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Lancet and A1C with functional disability in older adults: Results from the National 1988;2:140711. Mortality in individuals aged 80 and older with randomised controlled multi-centre trial. Shortfalls of the use of HbA1C-derived dination program among elderly patients with diabetes. Changes in physical performance in older uctuations and cognitive performance among aged type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care baroreex sensitivity in older adults with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and 2012;35:265064. Effects of aerobic physical exercise in the risk of coronary artery disease in a large group of patients undergoing coro- elderly with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Frailty in older adults: Evidence for a phe- chological well-being, physical training, and type 2 diabetes. The effect of comorbid illness and func- ing on mobility and strength in older adults with diabetes. J Gerontol A Biol tional status on the expected benets of intensive glucose control in older Sci Med Sci 2003;58:7405. Balance training reduces falls tion on the risk of severe hypoglycaemia: Post hoc epidemiological analysis risk in older individuals with type 2 diabetes.
The overall five-year survival rate is less than 3% 100 mg zudena with amex, and most patients who develop carcinoma of the pancreas die within six months of diagnosis generic zudena 100 mg visa. The poor prognosis in this condition is secondary to the inability to diagnose the carcinoma at an early stage purchase zudena cheap online. When symptoms present, the tumor is far advanced and often has metastasized to regional lymph nodes and to adjacent and distant organs, as shown in Table 17. Most common sites of metastases from pancreatic carcinoma o Local nodes o Liver o Peritoneum o Adrenal glands o Lung o Kidneys o Spleen o Bone Ductal cell adenocarcinoma accounts for 90% of pancreatic tumours. Approximately 5% of pancreatic carcinomas are of islet cell origin; the rest consist of cystadenocarcinoma, giant cell carcinoma and epidemoid carcinoma. The head of the pancreas is the most common site of involvement, accounting for 70% of the cases, whereas the body and tail account for 20% and 10% of the cases, respectively. Hereditary pancreatitis appears to carry a 40-fold increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer by 70 years of age; the risk seems to be associated with a paternal mode if inheritance. Several etiological agents have been invoked in the pathogenesis of pancreatic carcinoma (Table 18), although most of the studies have not yielded consistent results. Two tobacco-specific nitrosamines have been proposed as causative agents in the pathogenesis of carcinoma. Little is known of the role of the pancreas in the metabolism of carcinogens involved in exocrine pancreatic carcinoma. Diabetics are at twice the risk of developing carcinoma of the pancreas as the general population. There is no evidence to suggest that alcoholic chronic pancreatitis predisposes to carcinoma. Some epidemiological studies have suggested an increased rate of pancreatic carcinoma in patients who drank chlorinated water; this remains to be proven. Attempts to use the presence of these gene mutations in the diagnosis of occult pancreatic carcinoma seem to be vulner- able to a high false-positive rate. Rapid and progressive weight loss is probably the commonest symptom of carcinoma of the pancreas, and is not related to the location or to the extent of the tumor. Most (up to 90%) of the patients suffer from pain during the course of the disease. Located in the epigastrium, it radiates to the back and increases in severity at night. Depending on the site of the tumor, the pain may radiate to the right or left upper quadrant. Unrelenting pain results from retroperitoneal extension, with invasion of the neural plexuses around the celiac axis. Jaundice may be the presenting symptom in up to 30% of the patients, and the incidence increases as the disease progresses. Jaundice is more common when the head of the pancreas is involved, but obstruction or jaundice can occur secondary to spread to the liver or to lymph nodes around the bile duct. Other nonspecific symptoms include bloating, nausea and vomiting, weakness and fatigue, and diarrhea. The head is enlarged and bulbous with an abnormal texture, appearing hypoechoic on the image. The development of diabetes in a middle-aged man or elderly patient with no family history of diabetes should suggest pancreatic carcinoma, especially when this is associated with abdominal pain or weight loss. Serum alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin are evaluated elevated when the bile duct is obstructed or there are hepatic metastases. Pancreatic secretory studies are not often helpful, since findings overlap with those of chronic pancreatitis. Several tumor markers have been detected in the sera of patients with pan- creatic carcinoma. Its importance and significance in the management of pancreatic cancer are unclear. This marker may be useful as an adjunct in the diagnosis, selection of therapy and postoperative follow-up of patients with pancreatic cancer. Positive cytology may guide further management; on the other hand, negative cytology does not rule out the disease. The sensitivity of this test in pancreatic cancer is reported to be 7694%, with a specificity of 96%. Once a lesion is detected, a guided biopsy may be helpful in establishing the diagnosis. When obstructive jaundice is present, ultrasound may reveal the presence of hepatic lesions or obstruction of the biliary tree. In contrast to ultrasonography, with this technique bowel gas does not interfere with the resolution. Shaffer 633 early small cancer and small metastases to lymph nodes, liver and peritoneum. Its overall accuracy in detecting parenchymal lesions and lymph node involvement is about 84%. It has the advantage of combining gastroduodenoscopy, cholangiography and pancreatography. Angiography is no longer used for diagnosing pancreatic carcinoma, but is still useful to evaluate patients who have known carcinoma for resectability, outlining vas- cular anatomy. Newer diagnostic tools such as endoscopicEndoscopic ultrasound may further improve selection of patients who might benefit from curative surgery. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma in the head with direct invasion into the superior mesenteric vein (Courtesy of Dr. Unfortunately, at the time of presentation, 7580% of patients have an unre- sectable tumor. Shaffer 634 intervention, the disease carries a poor long-term prognosis, with a survival rate of 3% at five years. Factors that lead to a poor prognosis in pancreatic carcinomas include the presence of tumor in the lymph nodes and neural tissues, vascular invasion, tumor encasement of celiac or superior mesenteric artery, tumor size greater than 2. Pancreatic surgery using the Wwhipple procedure should be done only in specialized centers where such an operation is performed by a small number of highly trained surgeons. In such centers the mortality rate approaches 6%, as compared to nonspecialized centers where the mortality rate reaches 28%. Complications can occur in up to 20% of patients following pancreatoduo- denectomy. Factors favoring longer survival include jaundice at presentation, a small tumor mass, early tumor stage and a well-differentiated tumor. Palliative operations for unresectable tumor, such as alleviating biliary or duodenal obstruction, offer some relief.
All cancers disrupt normal controls of cell proliferation & for each cell there is a fnite number of ways this disruption can occur buy 100mg zudena. Cancer cells develop a degree of autonomy from external regulatory signals that are responsible for normal cellular homeostasis buy zudena online now. Subsequent mutations lead to malignant tumour which break through the basal membrane and spread to distant locations Download free eBooks at bookboon discount zudena 100mg free shipping. Some people have cells that contain either type A or type B but no cell contains both, hence tissues are a mosaic of cells with these two types. Since normal tissues on the other hand, are a mosaic of cells with both type A & B, this clearly demonstrates the clonal origins of cancer. Tese factors can act together or in sequence, resulting in abnormal cell behaviour and excessive proliferation. As a result, cell masses grow and expand, afecting surrounding normal tissues (such as in the brain), and can also spread to other locations in the body (metastasis). The average number of cells formed in any individual during an average lifetime is 1016 (10 million cells being replaced every second! It would therefore be logical to assume that human populations anywhere in the world would show similar frequencies of cancer. However, cancer incidence rates (number of individuals diagnosed) vary dramatically across countries. Evidently, some factors seem to intervene to dramatically increase cancer incidences in some populations. The obvious inference is that contributory factors that cause cancer are either hereditary or environmental. It means that either certain populations carry a large number of cancer-susceptibility genes or that the environment in which populations live largely contribute to the cancer incidence rates. While genes are distributed unequally across populations, they do not explain the diferences in cancer incidence rates in the world. Incidences of stomach cancer are 68 times higher among Japanese compared to Americans. However, children of migrant Japanese settled in America show incidence rates of stomach cancer comparable to that of the American population. Terefore, the risk of developing cancer seems largely environmental, accounting for more than 90% of all cancers caused. In the late 18th century, Sir Percival Pott reported that scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps was linked to poor hygiene and accumulation of cancer-causing agents from soot. The Danish Chimney sweepers Guild recommended daily baths and was the most likely reason for the dramatic reduction in scrotal cancer incidence rates in Europe. In 1950, compelling epidemiological evidence showed that heavy cigarette smokers ran a 20-fold higher risk of developing lung cancer compared to non-smokers. Excessive alcohol use has been linked to liver and mouth/throat cancers in both males and females. Smoking and tobacco use signifcantly increases the risk of lung cancers equally in males and females, and there is also a slightly higher risk of mouth/throat cancers. Incidences of skin cancers (melanomas) are on the rise, especially in Australia, due to exposure to high levels of ultraviolet radiation in the suns rays and popularity of tanning salons. However the risk of developing some of these cancers can be reduced by changing lifestyles and vaccines (like Gardasil which reduces the risk of cervical carcinomas). Initiation and progression of cancer is also due to exposure to cancer-causing agents (carcinogens, mutagens). Tese are present in food and water, in the air, and in chemicals and sunlight that people are exposed to. Since epithelial cells cover the skin, line the respiratory and alimentary tracts, and metabolize ingested carcinogens, it is not surprising that over 90% of cancers originate from epithelia (carcinomas). In less than 10% of cases, a genetic predisposition increases the risk of cancer developing a lot earlier (E. Sixty percent of new cancer cases and two thirds of cancer deaths occur in persons > 65 years. By 2020, wind could provide one-tenth of our planets Brain power electricity needs. These can be reduced dramatically thanks to our systems for on-line condition monitoring and automatic lubrication. We help make it more economical to create cleaner, cheaper energy out of thin air. By sharing our experience, expertise, and creativity, industries can boost performance beyond expectations. The exponential rise in many cancers with age fts with an increased susceptibility to the late stages of carcinogenesis by environmental exposures. Lifetime exposure to estrogen may lead to breast or uterine cancer; exposure to testosterone leads to prostate cancer. The decline in cellular immunity may also lead to certain types of cancer that are highly immunogenic (e. Tere are several benefts to identifying and classifying cancers using histological sections and staining methodology 1) Diagnosis: Microscopic observation helps determine whether the tumour tissue is benign (harmless) or malignant (potentially fatal). Gross cellular morphology and tissue specifc markers are used to classify cancerous cells. Patients with simple hyperplasia in the uterine epithelium have <1% chance of developing cancer compared 82% risk in patients with atypical hyperplasia. The mesothelium is a layer of cells which cover various organs in the body protecting them and allowing organs to move against each other as the lungs expand and contract or the heart beats. However the complexity of this disease is not as simple at the cellular and molecular level. Individual cell behaviour is not autonomous, and it usually relies on external signals from surrounding cells in the tissue or microenvironment. Tere are more than 100 distinct types of cancers and any specifc organ can contain tumours of more than one subtype. How many of these regulatory circuits need to be broken to transform a normal cell into a cancerous one? Is there a common regulatory circuit that is broken among diferent types of cancers? Which of these circuits are broken inside a cell and which of these are linked to external signals from neighbouring cells in the tissue? The answer to these questions can be summarised in a heterotypic model, manifested as the six common changes in cell physiology that results in cancer (proposed by Douglas Hanahan and Robert Weinberg in 2000). This model looks at tumours as complex tissues, in which cancer cells recruit and use normal cells in order to enhance their own survival and proliferation. The 6 hallmarks of this currently accepted model can be described using a trafc light analogy (Fig 1. Almost all cancers share some or all of the 6 traits described below, depending on the tumour. Arrows on the right (orange and red) show signals that regulate normal cell behaviour.