By U. Ortega. International Institue of the Americas.

To reduce the risk of Leukotriene modifiers are used for the prevention and long-term adverse reactions from control of mild asthma purchase female cialis from india. Zafirlukast’s absorption is de- creased by food order female cialis with american express, so it should be given 1 hour before or 2 hours af- ter meals cheap female cialis amex. In general, this class of drugs is metabolized, induced, or inhibited by the cytochrome P450 en- zyme system, which is important for establishing drug interac- tions. Caution required Zileuton is contraindicated in the patient with active liver disease. Closely monitor the patient with liver impairment who’s taking zafirlukast for adverse reactions; he may require a dosage adjust- ment. Leukotrienes can The leukotriene receptor antagonists zafirlukast and montelukast be very trying for prevent the D4 and E4 leukotrienes from interacting with their re- asthma sufferers. The leukotriene formation Montelukast, inhibitor zileuton inhibits the production of 5-lipoxygenase, there- zafirlukast, and zileuton help to inhibit by preventing the formation of leukotrienes. Pharmacotherapeutics Leukotriene modifiers are primarily used to prevent and control asthma attacks in the patient with mild to moderate disease. If carbamazepine, pheno- barbital, phenytoin, primidone, or rifampin is used with leuko- trienes, the effectiveness of the leukotrienes could be reduced. They’re also used in an triene modifiers include: adult or child with mild to moderate persistent asthma. Drugs in • headache this class include: • dizziness • cromolyn • nausea and vomiting • nedocromil. Pharmacodynamics These drugs stabilize the mast cell membrane, possibly by inhibit- ing calcium channels, thus preventing the release of inflammatory mediators. Mast cell stabilizers are used for the prevention and long-term control of asthma symptoms. Inhaled mast cell stabi- lizers may cause these Drug interactions adverse reactions: Interactions are uncommon when using inhaled forms. Methylxanthines, also called xanthines, are used to treat respira- tory disorders. Types of methylxanthines Methylxanthines include anhydrous theophylline and its deriva- tive salt aminophylline. Pharmacokinetics The pharmacokinetics of methylxanthines vary according to which drug the patient is receiving, the dosage form, and the ad- ministration route. Absorption When theophylline is given as an oral solution or a rapid-release tablet, it’s absorbed rapidly and completely. High-fat meals can in- crease theophylline concentrations and the risk of toxicity. Gastric measures Absorption of some of theophylline’s slow-release forms depends on the gastric pH. High-fat meals can Distribution increase the Theophylline is approximately 56% protein-bound in adults and risk of 36% protein-bound in neonates. It readily crosses the placental theophylline barrier and is secreted in breast milk. In adults and children, about 10% of a dose is excreted unchanged in urine; therefore, no dosage adjustment is required in patients with renal insufficiency. Because an infant has an immature liv- er with reduced metabolic functioning, as much as one- half of a dose may be excreted unchanged in his urine. Levels must be assessed when drug therapy is initiated, when the dosage is changed, and when drugs are added or removed from the patient’s regimen. Relax and breathe deeply Methylxanthines decrease airway reactivity and relieve bron- chospasm by relaxing bronchial smooth muscle. Theophylline is believed to inhibit phosphodiesterase, resulting in smooth-muscle relaxation, bronchodilation, and decreased inflammatory media- tors (namely mast cells, T cells, and eosinophils). A stimulating conversation In nonreversible obstructive airway disease (chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and apnea), methylxanthines appear to increase the sensitivity of the brain’s respiratory center to carbon dioxide and to stimulate the respiratory drive. Pumping you up In chronic bronchitis and emphysema, these drugs reduce fatigue Memory of the diaphragm, the respiratory muscle that separates the ab- jogger domen from the thoracic cavity. They also improve ventricular function and, therefore, the heart’s pumping action. How can you remember what theo- phylline and its salts Pharmacotherapeutics are used to treat? Adverse reactions to methylxanthines Adverse reactions to methylxanthines may be transient or symptomatic of toxicity. John’s wort, and char- broiled meats) increase theophylline metabolism, thus de- creasing its serum level and possibly its effectiveness. Omalizumab Pharmacokinetics Omalizumab is slowly absorbed after subcutaneous injection. It’s metabolized by the liver, but the rate of metabolization depends on IgG clearance. Pharmacodynamics Omalizumab inhibits the binding of IgE to its receptor on the mast cell and basophils. This in turns inhibits the release of allergic substances which potentiate asthma symptoms. Pharmacotherapeutics Omalizumab is used in patients with moderate-to-severe asthma with a positive skin test and insufficient control on inhaled corti- costeroids. Adverse reactions to monoclonal antibodies Adverse reactions to monoclonal antibodies • allergic reaction. However, in rare • sinusitis cases, delayed anaphylactic reactions (occur- • headache ring more than 24 hours after administration) • pharyngitis may occur. Expectorants Expectorants thin mucus so it’s cleared more easily out of the air- ways. Pharmacodynamics By increasing production of respiratory tract fluids, expectorants reduce the thickness, adhesiveness, and surface tension of mucus, making it easier to clear from the airways. Expectorants also pro- vide a soothing effect on the mucous membranes of the respirato- ry tract. Pharmacotherapeutics Adverse Guaifenesin is used to relieve symptoms due to ineffective, pro- reactions to ductive coughs from many disorders, such as: • bronchial asthma guaifenesin • bronchitis Adverse reactions to • colds guaifenesin include: • emphysema • nausea • influenza • vomiting (if taken in • minor bronchial irritation • sinusitis. Types of antitussives Antitussives are typically used to treat dry, nonproductive coughs. The major antitussives include: • benzonatate • codeine • dextromethorphan • hydrocodone bitartrate. Removing the sensation Benzonatate acts by anesthetizing stretch receptors throughout the bronchi, alveoli, and pleurae. Taking direct action Benzonatate Codeine, dextromethorphan, and hydrocodone suppress the can be useful cough reflex by direct action on the cough center in the medulla during diagnostic procedures when of the brain, thus lowering the cough threshold. Pharmacotherapeutics The uses of these drugs vary slightly, but each treats a serious, nonproductive cough that interferes with a patient’s ability to rest or carry out activities of daily living. Put it to the test Benzonatate relieves cough caused by pneumonia, bronchitis, the common cold, and chronic pulmonary diseases such as emphyse- ma.

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Major reported indications are for asthma buy female cialis with a mastercard, No data were available to the Working Group purchase female cialis uk. Various forms of processed and unpro- and kaempferol order female cialis 20mg mastercard, the two favonoid constituents cessed ginkgo leaf are present in dietary supple- that are present in high levels in G. It is possible that an inhib- the population was limited to people aged > 75 itory efect on topoisomerase is the underlying years and compliance in the placebo and ginkgo mechanism for quercetin- or kaempferol-associ- treatment groups was only about 60%. Summary of Data Reported risk estimates for cancers of the breast, colorectum, lung, prostate, and for urothelial cell carcinoma, 5. Increased Ginkgo biloba, also known as the “fossil tree,” risk for cancers of the breast and colorectum is the oldest living tree. Genotoxicity and/or topoisomerase inhibi- tion may be mechanisms of carcinogenicity asso- ciated with G. Tere is sufcient evidence in experimental In male mice receiving the extract, the incidence animals for the carcinogenicity of Ginkgo biloba of thyroid follicular cell adenoma exceeded the extract. In female rats, the incidences of thyroid follicular cell adenoma, thyroid follicular cell carcinoma, and nasal respiratory epithe- lium adenoma exceeded the range for historical controls in the study series. Genetic efects of the favonols quercetin, kaempferol, and galangin on Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro. Guidelines of the Federal Committee of J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Physicians and Health Insurances on the prescrip- Rev, 25(3):211–44. Te evolution, ecology, and culti- cones in Ginkgo biloba dietary supplement crude vation of Ginkgo biloba. Quantitative determination of major active tion in vivo and by the intestinal microfora in vitro. Ginkgo biloba extract for age-related Herrschaf H, Nacu A, Likhachev S, Sholomov I, Hoerr macular degeneration. Liquid chromatography/ kidney or urinary bladder in rodents and some other atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spec- substances. Botanical dementia of the Alzheimer’s type or multi-infarct medicines: the desk reference for major herbal supple- dementia. Natl Toxicol dietary favonoids myricetin and fsetin act as dual Program Tech Rep Ser, 578(578):1–183. An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, extract on lopinavir, midazolam and fexofenadine and Biologicals. Associations of herbal and specialty supple- Peters H, Kieser M, Hölscher U (1998). Cancer Epidemiol on intermittent claudication–a placebo-controlled, Biomarkers Prev, 18(5):1419–28. Detection of allergenic urushiols in afer oral administration to rats of a Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo biloba leaves. Ginkgo biloba extract for the in Alzheimer’s disease: from action mechanisms to treatment of intermittent claudication: a meta-anal- medical practice. Involvement of rat cytochrome 1A1 in the placebo controlled study of Ginkgo biloba extract biotransformation of kaempferol to quercetin: rele- (‘tanakan’) in elderly outpatients with mild to moderate vance to the genotoxicity of kaempferol. Plasma levels and distribution of use in Canada: analysis of the National Population favonoids in rat brain afer single and repeated doses Health Survey. Appl Microbiol memory enhancing efects of a Ginkgo biloba/Panax Biotechnol, 64(4):465–72. J Clin Pharmacol, Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of 46(11):1290–8. Ginkgo biloba and ovarian cancer preven- quality control of Ginkgo biloba leaves, extracts, and tion: epidemiological and biological evidence. Plant drug analysis: a thin layer Zeiger E, Anderson B, Haworth S, Lawlor T, Mortelmans chromatography atlas, 2nd Ed. Te cultural history of the Intoxicating long pepper; Intoxicating pepper; use of kava has been reviewed by Singh (1992). Kao; Kava kava rhizome; Kava root; Kavapiper; In the past, traditional use of kava was Kavapyrones; Kavarod; Kavasporal forte; Kave- widespread, but, in certain cultures, custom kave; Kawa; Kawa kawa; Kawa pepper; Kawa determined who could use kava and for what Pfefer; Kew; Long pepper; Macropiper latifo- purposes. In recent years, as part of the processes lium; Malohu; Maluk; Maori kava; Meruk; Milik; of modernization, major changes have occurred Pepe kava; Piperis methystici rhizome; Rhizoma with regard to who uses kava, and where and piperis methystici; Sakaua; Sakau; Tonga; Yagona; how it is consumed. In some places, kava is now Yangona; Yaqona; Yongona being consumed much like alcohol in western countries, as a beverage that is drunk socially (b) Description (McDonald & Jowitt, 2000). Due to its (a) Nomenclature traditional use as a ritual beverage known for promoting relaxation and a sense of well-being, Chem. Name: Kava-kava resin (8Cl) in Polynesia, Melanesia, and the Federated States Botanical name: Piper methysticum G. Te leaves are heart-shaped, pointed, 8–25 cm Family: Piperaceae in length, and smooth and green on both sides. Forst between stem joints), colour of stems, intensity of leaf colour, and quality of the root. Te dried rhizome consists of irregular, transverse and longitudinal pieces, varying considerably in size and shape: 3–20 cm in length and 1–5 cm in diameter. Te outer surface is light yellowish or greyish-brown, longitudinally wrin- kled, with large, whitish, circular root scars. When dried, the rhizome consists of approximately 43% starch, 20% fbres, 12% water, 3. Te bioac- tive principles of kava rhizome are mostly, if not From Spohn (2013) entirely, contained in the lipid-soluble resin. Te © Roland Spohn compounds of greatest pharmacological interest referred to as the stump. Te stump is knotty, are the substituted α-pyrones or kavapyrones, thick, and sometimes tuberous and ofen contains commonly known as kavalactones. At least 15 holes or cracks created by partial destruction of lactones have been isolated from kava rhizome. A fringe of lateral roots up to 2–3 Te following six compounds are present in m in length extends from the pithy rhizome. Te the highest concentrations and account for roots comprise a multitude of ligneous fbres and approximately 96% of the lipid resin: kavain, consist of > 60% starch. Rhizome colour varies dihydrokavain, yangonin, desmethoxyyan- from white to dark yellow, depending upon the gonin, methysticin, and dihydromethysticin amount of kavalactones contained in the lemon- (see Fig. Te plant is usually harvested when chalcones and other favanones, and conjugated it is about 2–2. Te cultivation and selection of kava has In the past, “kavain” has been used to indi- produced numerous varieties or cultivars recog- cate a racemic mixture resulting from chem- nized by diferences in the internodes (space ical synthesis, and “kawain” for the naturally 118 Kava Fig. Singh (2004a) mentioned adulteration literature, but the term kavain has started to with sawdust, four, or soil. Kava may contamination with afatoxin B1 in four samples also be sold as an unpeeled rhizome covered of ground kava was 0. For example, the alkaloid pipermethys- tine was not detectable in some commercial kava 1. Uses described in traditional both kava and its extracts obtained by aqueous medicine, but not supported by experimental or acetone or aqueous methanol, and supercritical clinical data, are treatment of asthma, common fuid extraction – typically with carbon dioxide cold, cystis, gonorrhoea, headaches, menstrual modifed with methanol as solvent – were irregularities, urinary infections, and warts.

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It belongs to the group of 11S globulins buy 20mg female cialis with mastercard, with sedimentation coefficients between 11S and 14S (molec- ular weight = 300–400 kDa) cheap female cialis 20mg with mastercard. Legumin has a complex globular structure that is made up of six pairs of subunits generic 10 mg female cialis mastercard, with each subunit consisting of disulphide-linked acid (molecular weight = 40 kDa) and basic (molecular weight = 20 kDa) polypeptides (41). The composition of the protein depends on the source from which it is derived and can have a signifi- cant influence on the preparation of nanoparticles. Therefore, batch-to-batch variation can have a significant influence on the nanoparticle characteristics. The batches with higher molecular weight fractions resulted in larger particle size and higher polydispersity. This can be overcome by using a two-step desolvation process to remove the large molecular weight aggregates (43). Similar to animal/human proteins, the plant proteins also contains various molecular weight fractions. In addition, the presence of pigments can also interfere with the preparation of nanoparticles. This necessitates a purification of the protein polymers before the preparation of nanoparticles (37). Protein Solubility The solubility of the protein in aqueous or organic solvent dictates the choice of the method and the nanoparticle characteristics. Protein nanoparticles are prepared by utilizing the differential solubility of the protein in aqueous and nonaqueous solvents, as proteins can fold or unfold depending on the polarity of the solvent (1). The pH value of the aqueous solution was found to have a significant influence on the size of the albumin nanoparticles (45). At a pH away from the pI, the hydrophobic interactions in the protein are reduced, result- ing in lesser aggregation (26). Type A gelatin has a pI of 7 to 9, whereas type B gelatin has a pI of 4 to 7 (Table 1). Hence, the source of gelatin can influence the size, zeta-potential, and drug loading in gelatin nanoparticles (46, 47). For type A gelatin and type B gelatin, pH 7 and pH 3, respectively, were found to be critical for the preparation of nanoparticles (48). At these pH values, the strengths of electrostatic interactions are maximized for obtaining stable particles with optimal drug loading. Furthermore, in the case of gelatin, due to its high viscosity, a preheating (40◦C) step was used to prepare smaller size nanoparticles (48). However, a higher temperature (50◦C) was found to increase the particle size, due to the excessive unfolding of the protein (48). In a comparative study between different strengths of gelatin (75, 175, and 300 bloom strength), it was found that 300 bloom strength was optimal in terms of particle size, polydispersity index, and drug encapsulation (48). Surface Properties One of the significant advantages of protein polymers is the presence of numerous surface functional groups that can be used for modifying the surface of the pro- tein nanoparticles to alter their biodistribution or biocompatibility or drug loading and/or improve their enzymatic stability (Fig. Particle size and surface proper- ties of protein nanoparticles depend on the number of disulfide bonds, number of thiol groups, degree of unfolding, electrostatic repulsion among protein molecules, pH, and ionic strength. The surface amine groups can be cross-linked using cross-linkers such as glutaraldehyde (Fig. The protonation or deprotonation of the surface amine groups can influence the degree of cross-linking (46). An increase in cross-linker concentration generally decreases the particle size of protein nanoparticles due to the formation of denser particles (48). Cross-linking helps in controlling the drug release from protein nanoparticles, as well as stabilizing the particles against prote- olytic breakdown. The surface functional groups can also be used to load drugs by electrostatic interactions (47). Kommareddy and Amiji (50) thiolated the surface amine groups to form disulfide bonds in gelatin nanoparticles. These nanoparticles can release their cargo under the highly reduc- ing environment in the tumor cells (50). Similarly, ligands have been attached to the surface of protein nanoparticles for drug targeting to specific tissues in the body (51,52). The surface functional groups in the protein can also directly interact with the biological membrane. Gliadin nanoparticles have been reported to show bioad- hesive property in the intestinal membrane, where the surface amino acids adhered to the intestinal membrane through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interac- tions (39). Drug Properties The physicochemical properties of the drug, such as solubility, log P, and molec- ular weight, influence the drug loading in protein nanoparticles. The drugs can be loaded through encapsulation in the nanoparticle or by the interaction of drug with the protein through covalent or noncovalent interactions. Highly hydrophobic drugs have been found to interact with cysteine residues in the albumin through hydrophobic interactions (19). For example, paclitaxel a highly hydrophobic drug is loaded in albumin nanoparticles by mixing albumin and paclitaxel in a high pressure homogenizer (53). A large number of drugs are known to bind to serum albumin, and hence albumin appears to be a promising carrier (19). In the case of gelatin nanoparticles, higher encapsulation efficiency was reported for hydrophilic drugs than for hydrophobic drugs (46). Doxorubicin was adsorbed onto gelatin- coated iron oxide nanoparticles for targeting using magnetic field (47). It was found that the adsorption of cationic doxorubicin onto gelatin nanoparticles increased with increasing pH due to the negative charge of gelatin at higher pH. On the other hand, the encapsulation of doxorubicin in gelatin-coated iron oxide nanopar- ticles showed a slower drug release than surface-adsorbed nanoparticles (47). The release of hydrophilic drugs from gelatin nanoparticles was found to occur by zero- order kinetics, whereas hydrophobic drugs were released by pseudo zero-order kinetics (46). It was found that hydrophobic drugs are slowly released because of their higher affinity to hydrophobic gliadin. On the other hand, hydrophilic drugs showed a burst release followed by slower drug diffusion from the nanoparticle matrix. High encapsulation efficiency (90%) of bone mor- phogenetic protein was reported with albumin nanoparticles (55). Unlike synthetic polymers, macromolecular drugs can be loaded in protein nanoparticles under milder conditions. It is generally recognized that increasing pro- tein unfolding and decreasing intramolecular hydrophobic interactions are criti- cal determinants for nanoparticle formation (26). During nanoparticle formation, the protein undergoes conformational changes depending on its composition, con- centration, preparation conditions (such as pH, ionic strength, solvent), and cross- linking methods. Usually, surfactants are required to stabilize the nanoparticles of water-insoluble proteins such as gliadin (40). The unfolding of the proteins dur- ing the preparation process exposes interactive groups such as disulfides and thi- ols. Subsequent thermal or chemical cross-linking leads to the formation of cross- linked nanoparticles with entrapped drug molecules.

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Manufacturers should use the description of a unit that is most appropriate for the specific product (e generic female cialis 10 mg free shipping. About l seconds spray (l g) Fish 20mg female cialis, Shellfish purchase female cialis 20mg amex, Game Meats10, and Meat or Poultry Sub- stitutes: Bacon substitutes, canned anchovies,11 anchovy 15 g........................ The maximum l tablet(s), l capsule(s), l packet(s), amount rec- l tsp(s) (l g), etc. Sauces, Dips, Gravies and Condiments: Barbecue sauce, hollandaise sauce, tartar sauce, 2 tbsp...................... An amount equiva- l tsp(s) (l g) for solids; l drop(s) (l lent to one ref- g) for liquid; l piece(s) (l g) (e. Manufacturers should use the description of a unit that is most appropriate for the specific product (e. The guidance provided is for the label statement of products in ready-to-serve or almost ready-to-serve form. The guidance does not apply to the products which require further preparation for consumption (e. For products that require further preparation, manufacturers must determine the label statement following the rules in §101. Label serving size of all chewing gums that weigh more than the reference amount that can reasonably be consumed at a single-eating occasion will be 1 unit. The reference amount for paragraph (b) of this section, for the in- the aerated food shall be rounded to gredient that is represented as the the nearest 5-g increment. Such prod- main ingredient plus proportioned ucts shall bear a descriptive term indi- amounts of all minor ingredients. The represented as the main ingredient is density-adjusted reference amounts de- one or more discrete units (e. The differences in the den- amount for the combined product shall sities of different types of cakes having be either the number of small discrete different degrees of air incorporation units or the fraction of the large dis- have already been taken into consider- crete unit that is represented as the ation in determining the reference main ingredient that is closest to the amounts for cakes in §101. In de- reference amount for that ingredient as termining the difference in density of established in paragraph (b) of this sec- the aerated and the regular food, the tion plus proportioned amounts of all manufacturer shall adhere to the fol- minor ingredients. If the ref- (2) Sample selections for the density erence amounts are in incompatible measurements shall be done in accord- units, the weights of the appropriate ance with the provisions in §101. If to ensure that the average of the meas- the serving size declared on the prod- urements is representative of the true uct label differs from the reference differences in the densities of the reg- amount, and the product meets the cri- ular and the "aerated" products. That statement shall include the that consist of two or more foods pack- reference amount as it appears in para- aged and presented to be consumed to- graph (b) of this section followed, in gether (e. A petition to rules shall be followed: establish or amend a reference amount (A) For volumes greater than 30 mil- shall include: liliters (mL), the volume shall be ex- (1) Objective of the petition; pressed in multiples of 30 mL. Data must include substitute foods, the names of the sample size; and the mean, standard de- products for which they are offered as viation, median, and modal consumed substitutes); amount per eating occasion for the pe- (9) The suggested reference amount titioned product and for other products (the amount of edible portion of food as in the category, excluding the peti- consumed, excluding bone, seed, shell, tioned product. All data must be de- or other inedible components) for the rived from the same survey data. In determining the ref- petitioned product from the rest of the erence amount, general principles and products in the category. Reference or process food consumption data in amounts for other foods shall be ex- support of the petition, the following pressed in grams except when common general guidelines should be followed. If such informa- in labeling of foods unless the claim is tion is declared elsewhere on the label made in accordance with this regula- or in labeling, it is a nutrient content tion and with the applicable regula- claim and is subject to the require- tions in subpart D of this part or in ments for nutrient content claims. I (4–1–10 Edition) unless the package complies with which case the disclaimer shall be no §101. The nutrient in the food must be compared statement shall be adjacent to the to an amount of nutrient in an appro- claim that is printed in the largest priate reference food as specified type on that panel. Such a claim might be, "less than 3 g (B) For "light," "reduced," "added," of fat per serving;" "extra," "plus," "fortified," and "en- (2) The use of the statement on the riched" claims, the reference food shall food implicitly characterizes the level be a similar food (e. The nutrient disclaimer must be in easily legible value for the reference food shall be print or type and in a size no less than representative of a broad base of foods that required by §101. Firms using panel adjacent to the statement of such a reference nutrient value as a identity; basis for a claim, are required to pro- (B) A claim elsewhere on the prin- vide specific information upon which cipal display panel; the nutrient value was derived, on re- (C) A claim on the information panel; quest, to consumers and appropriate or regulatory officials. The nutrient values used panel, the quantitative information to determine the claim when com- may be located elsewhere on the infor- paring a single manufacturer’s product mation panel in accordance with §101. The type size shall be in accord- (i) Weighing at least 10 ounces (oz) ance with paragraph (h)(4)(i) of this per labeled serving; and section. I (4–1–10 Edition) (A) Bread, cereal, rice, and pasta determining compliance with nutrition group; labeling in §101. If the serving size groups that are in the sauces), gravies, declared on the product label differs condiments, relishes, pickles, olives, from the reference amount customarily jams, jellies, syrups, breadings or consumed, and the amount of the nu- garnishes; and trient contained in the labeled serving (2) Is represented as, or is in a form does not meet the maximum or min- commonly understood to be, a break- imum amount criterion in the defini- fast, lunch, dinner, or meal. Such rep- tion for the descriptor for that nutri- resentations may be made either by ent, the claim shall be followed by the statements, photographs, or vignettes. However, foods (E) These foods shall not be sauces bearing such claims must comply with (except for foods in the above four food section 403(f), (g), and (h) of the act; groups that are in the sauces) gravies, (2) A soft drink that used the term condiments, relishes, pickles, olives, diet as part of its brand name before jams, jellies, syrups, breadings, or October 25, 1989, and whose use of that garnishes; and term was in compliance with §105. This reason- made on the label or in labeling of die- able basis may derive from recognized tary supplements without a regulation data bases for raw and processed foods, that specifically defines such a state- recipes, and other means to compute ment. All such claims shall be accom- nutrient levels in the foods or meals panied by any disclosure statement re- and may be used provided reasonable quired under paragraph (h) of this sec- steps are taken to ensure that the tion. When- factors on which the reasonable basis ever a statement is made that charac- was determined (e. For example, a term such as accordance with paragraph (j)(2)(iv) of "lite fare" followed by an asterisk re- this section (e. I (4–1–10 Edition) foods that were subject to a standard of ing loss of essential nutrients, or pro- identity on November 8, 1990, are not viding energy. Petitions requesting terol, or 480 mg of sodium, per ref- approval of such a claim may be sub- erence amount customarily consumed, mitted under §101. For dehy- tled water that contains added fluo- drated foods that must have water ride. For purposes of this g of saturated fat, 120 mg of choles- section, the following definitions terol, or 960 mg of sodium per label apply: serving size, and (1) Health claim means any claim (ii) The levels for a main dish product made on the label or in labeling of a as defined in §101. If the claim per- (vi) If the claim is about the effects tains to a substance not provided for in of consuming the substance at de- §101. I (4–1–10 Edition) requirement, if a definition for use of ments of paragraphs (d)(2)(vi) or the term low has been established for (d)(2)(vii) of this section and provides that substance under this part, the sub- that basis upon request. If no defini- taurant foods, in accordance with tion for "low" has been established, §101. No ex- authorizing the claim; or pressed or implied health claim may be (vii) If the claim is about the effects made on the label or in labeling for a of consuming the substance at other food, regardless of whether the food is than decreased dietary levels, the level of the substance is sufficiently high in conventional food form or dietary and in an appropriate form to justify supplement form, unless: the claim. To meet this requirement, if (1) The claim is specifically provided a definition for use of the term high for for in subpart E of this part; and that substance has been established (2) The claim conforms to all general under this part, the substance must be provisions of this section as well as to present at a level that meets the re- all specific provisions in the appro- quirements for use of that term, unless priate section of subpart E of this part; a specific alternative level has been es- (3) None of the disqualifying levels tablished for the substance in subpart identified in paragraph (a)(4) of this E of this part. If no definition for section is exceeded in the food, unless "high" has been established (e.