By R. Tempeck. Bucknell University.

In response to low blood volume order cialis extra dosage 40 mg on line, renin is released from the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney buy 50mg cialis extra dosage fast delivery. The process is cumulative buy cheap cialis extra dosage 40mg, ultimately lead- ing to death from the local effects of fluid accumulation. Systemic edema with hepatomegaly and ascites will predomi- nate in isolated right ventricular disease, or when both ventricles are affected. Left ventricular disease will result in in- creased pulmonary venous and capillary pressure. P atrium, is another contributing factor to the mitrale indicative of left atrial enlargement. Causes for sinoatrial arrest in birds include excessive vagal pendent on the presence of atrial systole, stimulation, thiamine deficiency, vitamin E deficiency and poisoning with perhaps through the effect of atrial relaxa- organophosphorus compounds. The resulting valvular insufficiency arrest suggest a pathologic condition of the atrium such as atrial fibrosis or dilatation. Clinical Findings: This bird was presented with short periods (several seconds) of syncope for several hours, two to three times a month. The sinoa- response to an increased workload, and it has trial arrest was considered to be a possible explanation for the observed syncopal been postulated that this predisposes birds attacks. Echocardiography in- dicated biatrial enlargement, distended hepatic vessels and ascites. Color-flow dop- pler indicated a mitral regurgitation and right sided heart failure. Repeated echocardiography indicated a decrease in the size of the heart and liver. Congestive heart failure complicated by atrial fibrilla- tion due to mitral valve insufficiency has been reported in a Pukeko. The high incidence of cardio- vascular failure in meat-type poultry is prob- ably the result of genetic selection for rapid growth and high breast meat yield, with no attention to cardiovascular health and stress resistance. The practice of inbreeding certain species of companion birds for color or size variations could have a similar effect. Halothane described at high altitudes, but it also occurs sensitizes the heart to adrenalin-induced arrhythmias (courtesy of J. The relatively higher oxygen demand causes Clinical Findings a hypoxemia, which in turn induces a polycythemia. With polycythemia, the blood is more viscous and Heart enlargement with a thin left ventricular wall more difficult to pump through the lungs. The in- has been reported as a common occurrence in mynah 22 creased workload results in right ventricular dilata- birds. A de- crease of the heart rate can be seen due to improvement of the circula- tion and parasympathetic (vagal) stimulation. A moderate increase in dietary information is available with regard to digoxin ther- sodium for one week may cause congestive heart apy in birds. Digoxin pediatric drops, rather than Treatment digoxin tablets, should be used in birds to improve Once congestive heart failure has been diagnosed, the accuracy of dosing. The dosage adequate blood plasma levels in Quaker Conures must be adjusted for the individual bird, but 1-2 (Monk Parakeet). Vegetative Endocarditis Cardiac glycosides are indicated in congestive heart Endocarditis of the aortic and mitral valves may failure, especially when accompanied by atrial fibril- cause vascular insufficiency, lethargy and dyspnea. Ventricular tachycardia may be a contraindi- Valvular endocarditis is most common in birds with cation because digitalis may induce ventricular fibril- chronic infections (eg, salpingitis, hepatitis and bum- lation in these cases. The disease is asso- ciated with bacteremia, and thromboem- bolisms may occur throughout the vascula- ture. The initial damage to the heart valves that induces vegetative endocarditis is usually unknown. Factors that have been associated with endocardial or valvular lesions include chronic bacterial septicemia, frostbite, con- genital lesions (that alter blood flow) and degenerative myocarditis. Entero- Electrocardiographic Diagnosis: P pulmonale and P mitrale are indicative of biatrial enlargement. The dyspnea had become progressively more severe for the few days before evaluation. Total protein and protein Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was recovered electrophoresis were normal. Unsuccessful treatment with oxygen, gavage feed- from mitral and tricuspid valve lesions of a ing, furosemide and digoxin was attempted. Postmortem findings confirmed subclinical seven-year-old female swan that cardiohepatomegaly and severe ascites. Histologic examination of the liver 36 revealed fibrosis that was thought to have occurred secondary to right ventricu- was found dead in her enclosure. Chicken em- bryos are classic experimental animals to study tera- tologic effects of drugs on the heart. Various cardio- vascular malformations can experimentally be induced, especially intraventricular septal defects. Spontaneous cardiovascular malformations like du- plicitas cordis, multiplicatis cordis, ectopia cordis have been reported. Intraventricular septal de- fects are usually functionally closed, but in two per- cent of cases the condition is associated with conges- tive heart failure. Blood is shunted from left to right, which leads to right ventricular failure and ascites secondary to valvular insufficiency. Acquired Diseases In mammals, myocarditis can occur secondary to many common viral, bacterial, mycotic and proto- zoan infections. Cardiomyopathy has been associated with thyroid diseases, anemia, malnutrition, meta- bolic disorders, parasitic infections, pancreatitis, toxemias and neoplasia. Electrocardiography revealed a Fowl plague has been associated with myocardial heart rate = 120, P-wave = 0. Echocardiography indicated a large mass on the has been reported as a component of neuropathic aortic valve. A six-year-old curassow was presented with lethargy and a cool edematous left leg. Lesions consist generally of an enlarged Chlamydia Pasteurella and yellowish heart. A few affected birds may have Salmonella Chlamydia an excess of gelatinous fluid in the pericardial sac or Reovirus (Galliformes) Polyomavirus 69,75 Concurrent respiratory Avian serositis virus peritoneal cavity. Cardiomegaly Neuropathic gastric Polyomavirus dilatation Vitamin E and selenium deficiencies are well known Hemochromatosis Selenium and vitamin E 78 deficiencies as causes for cardiomyopathy in gallinaceous birds. Epicarditis Salmonella Hydropericardium Selenium and vitamin E deficiencies have also been Pasteurella Polyomavirus suggested as causes for myocardial and skeletal mus- Reovirus (Galliformes) Furazolidone toxicity cle degeneration in ratites less than six months old Genetics that died after a brief period of depression (see Chap- ter 48). Histologic lesions in the heart of these birds a relatively greater increase in the left. Af- oxygen levels in the incubator and poor ventila- fected birds typically have increased activities of tion). Electrocardiography has been shown to be effective for diagnosing both spontaneous and fura- zolidone-induced cardiomyopathy. Digoxin can be used when cardiac output is diminished due to myocardial disease, but is contraindicated when persistent ventricular ar- rhythmias are present.

For each sample of the “non-standards” three results were obtained - the first from the participant cheap 100mg cialis extra dosage free shipping, the second from the laboratory’s own curve generic 40 mg cialis extra dosage with amex, calculated with the spline program safe 50mg cialis extra dosage, and the third from the hidden standard curve, also calculated with the spline-program. The difference between the first and the second results indicated the influence of the curve-calculation procedure. The difference between the second and the third results indicated the influence of different standard solvents (hormone-free serum against buffer solutions) and different standard preparations. The evaluation of the questionnaires allowed some trends in the hormone- assay field to be analysed. In 1974 70% of the participants used a graphical- manual evaluation of the unknown data. In 1974 only 17% of the participants used hormone-free human serum as standard solvent. All kits which were at that time available in the Federal Republic of Germany used protein buffers as standard diluent. In 1980 83% of the participants used kits or “own” methods with hormone-free serum as matrix for the standards. Comparing the overall incubation times, there was a clear trend towards short assays. In 1974 70% of the participants incubated for less than 30 hours with a mean of 22 hours. In 1980 90% of the participants incubated for less than 30 hours with a mean of 16 hours, a quarter of these from only 2^- to 5 hours. In the lower concentration range these “rapid assays” had a clear tendency to give results which were too high because of the loss in sensitivity. The three assays with the most extreme incubation conditions (2^ hours at room temperature, 144 hours at 4°C and 60 hours at 37°Q showed the worst performance. Despite all heterogeneity in incubation conditions, antibodies, standard solvents, separation techniques, etc. The competition of the kit producers has not led to the suspected decline in quality, perhaps expected when these only sought commercial profit and advertising effectiveness. The hidden standard curve in hormone- free serum elucidates influences of standard preparations and standard matrices. Around 10 control pool sera, covering the whole concentration range of clinical interest, makes it possible to illustrate the level of accuracy by means of a precision profile. Running one sample in triplicate using three different code numbers gives an estimation of the intra-assay precision. Thorough evaluation of the questionnaires often reveals the causes of bad performance. I n : R a d io im m u n o a s s a y o f H o rm o n e s , P r o ­ t e i n s a n d E n z y m e s. I n : R a d io im m u n o ­ a s s a y a n d R e l a t e d P r o c e d u r e s i n M e d ic i n e 1 9 7 7 , p. I n : R a d io im m u n o a s s a y a n d R e l a t e d P r o c e ­ d u r e s i n M e d ic i n e 1977, p. Some improvement in the average performance of such assays can be observed despite some drawbacks such as the generalized use of kits in the region concerned. Since then the techniques have evolved, but the results obtained have shown the need for quality-control procedures in view of their variability (Rodbard [2]). Many attempts at more precise and less diverse measurement results have been made in assay chemistry and immunochemistry, standard curve analysis and intralaboratory quality control. The search for better reagents, high affinity and more specific antibodies, and finer techniques of laboratory procedures has continued. Various methods have been proposed for analysis of the standard curve as reviewed by Rodbard [3] and Fiori [4]. Improvement in the results has been sought through the analysis of errors affecting standards and unknowns (Rodbard [5]). Therefore, specific programmes have been established (Breuer [7]), and general analytical criteria proposed (Munson [8]). The interest and importance of the subject have been steadily maintained (Chase [9]; Bremmer [10]; Fiori [11]). In the programme described here, about ten laboratories from the southern states of Brazil, and from Uruguay and Paraguay took part. Common proce­ dures and standardized techniques were recommended to the participants. Sera with low, medium and high concentrations of thyroid hormones were collected and pooled. At three-month intervals control charts, together with comments on the results obtained in the period concerned, were sent to participants. The data of the laboratories that participated in the programme are also presented. The parameters that are more frequently used for the quality control in radioimmunoassay are the specific activity of the tracer, amount of tracer, minimum detectable dose, total number of counts, number of non-specific counts, binding capacity, values of the slope, value of the intercept, within- assay and between-assay variance, and the mean values of a sample run on repetitive assays. In the present work the control limits were established according to a grouping technique (Bennet [12]) previously described by one of us (Fiori [11]). As noted there the method is very practical and simple, giving considerable flexibility to the processing of data. Repeated measurements of the same standard sample pool of T4 were reported by different laboratories. The values obtained were arranged in random groups of four elements, in the order that they arrived. Confindence limits: Data presented in Table I, representing repeated determinations o f a pool serum sample of T$. The mean and the standard deviation of the remaining individual data can then be calculated in the usual manner. A final control chart can then be plotted using these values and is presented in Fig. Control chart: Data presented in Table I, representing repeated determinations of a pool serum sample o f Тц. Control chart: Repeated determinations o f a pool serum sample o f T$ by different laboratories. Many attempts have been made by private, national and international organizations to reduce such inconsistencies. It is commonly recognized that a considerable improvement can be made by utilizing common standards and reagents. Under our conditions, however, the use of kits of reagents of various origins aggravates the situation. We have strong indications that our programme has effectively influenced improvements in assays at the participating laboratories and helped, in the region concerned, to develop awareness of the need for strict internal quality- control programmes. The participants were asked to give for each sample the values from two individual determinations, as well as their diagnostic classifi­ cation and the type of analytical kit used. But the individual values and the associated diagnostic classifications differed widely.

discount 50mg cialis extra dosage

Domestic guineafowl mass (weight) cheap cialis extra dosage online mastercard, the color of the plumage order discount cialis extra dosage online, the shape of cocks are not fertile all year order 100 mg cialis extra dosage fast delivery, and artificial insemina- certain feathers, the presence of spurs and the length tion is used to induce year-round production. It is best to collect the semen directly from the spermatic duct with a syringe and a blunted hypodermic needle. The semen is introduced with hens; however, spread of genetic defects is increased, while a syringe and a blunted hypodermic needle into the the genetic diversity is decreased. It is best to inseminate the hen just In many species, the captive production of offspring is still difficult. Artificial insemination has proven that the semen is usually fertile, suggesting that breeding problems are primar- ily behavioral. Semen can be used from cocks that are genetically and organically healthy but have been handicapped by an injury and are no longer able to mate. Parasites (see Chapter 36) Poxviridae Ulcerative and necrotic enteritis Protozoal Parasites: Avian pox (Cl. Marble spleen disease Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Toxoplasma gondii Hemorrhagic enteritis of turkeys Pseudotuberculosis Sarcocystis spp. Adenovirus infection of the Blue Grouse Pseudomonas infection Parvoviridae Haemoproteus spp. Bordetella avium Circodnaviridae Metazoal Parasites Bordetellosis (turkey coryza) Infectious anemia Trematodes Campylobacter spp. Avian hepatitis Viral arthritis Cestodes Borrelia anserina Other reovirus infections Davainea proglottina Spirochetosis Rotavirus infections Raillietina spp. Birnaviridae Amoebotaenia cuneata Infectious typhlitis in chickens Infectious bursal disease Choanotaenia infundibulum Pasteurella spp. Fowl cholera Eastern and western encephalitis Metroliasthes lucida Actinobacillus salpingitidis Avian serositis Fimbriaria fasciolaris Actinobacillosis Louping-ill Nematodes (in digestive tract) Haemophilus spp. Coronaviridae Haemophilus infection Francisella tularensis Trichostrongylus tenuis Coronaviral enteritis of turkeys Heterakis spp. Infectious bronchitis Gangylonema ingluvicola Rhabdoviridae Mycoplasma (see Chapter 38) Cheilospirura spp. Avian influenza, fowl plague Nematodes (in other locations) Rickettsia (see Chapter 38) Retroviridae Aproctella stoddardi Coxiella burnetii Leukosis Singhfilaria hayesi Query (Q) fever Reticuloendotheliosis Acanthocephalans Aegyptianella pullorum Lymphoproliferative disease of turkeys Mediorhynchus papillosus Aegyptianellosis Picornaviridae Arthropods Avian encephalomyelitis External parasites like lice, fleas, flies, Turkey viral hepatitis Mycoses (see Chapter 35) mosquitoes, midges, and ticks occur in Infectious nephritis Aspergillus spp. Mites occur Aspergillosis above all in intensively reared gallina- ceous birds, predacious bugs in some Bacteria (see Chapter 33) Candida albicans gallinaceous birds. Favus Mycobacterium avium Tuberculosis Erysipelothrix rusiopathiae Mycotoxicoses (see Chapter 37) Erysipelas Toxins of Aspergillus spp. Characteristic necropsy findings include weight loss, pale and ede- matous skeletal muscles, petechial hemorrhage in Cocks with spurs can injure handlers, especially the muscles and mild subcutaneous edema. Frac- when they become increasingly aggressive during tures in the diaphysis of the humerus, radius, ulna, the mating season. The beak can also serve as a femur and tibiotarsus with massive callus formation weapon. Although serious injuries are rare, the face and lateral twisting of the tibia may also occur. Feed- and the eyes of handlers should always be protected ing the chicks natural food stuffs will prevent vita- from a bird’s beak, even in small species. Integument Concerns Catching gallinaceous birds in an aviary can be done Amputation of the comb or the wattles may be indi- gently with a hooked, long stick. The birds should cated following extensive injury, infection or frost- never be restrained by the feathers alone. Adequate hemostasis is necessary to prevent body must be secured to prevent a shock molt. Occasional trimming of the kerati- molt is most common in tail feathers, but other feath- nous tip of the bill is necessary if the horny layer ers can be involved. Birds can be nearly “bald” after grows too fast, or is insufficient abrasive materials several failed restraint attempts. The excessive the base of the wing is fixed with one hand and the horn is pared off prudently with a sharp knife with- legs are controlled with the other hand (see Chapter out cutting into the viable parts of the bill. If assistance is not available, a large bird can be re- Cannibalism may occur in some Galliformes and is strained by placing it under one arm and pressing it characterized by vent-picking, feather-pulling, toe- gently against one’s body. Overcrowding, calmed by placing a loose-fitting, lightweight cotton incorrect feeding, an inappropriate daylight cycle, sock over the head to reduce vision. Amputating the comb and wattles and “debeaking” 3,8,14,39 have been used to control cannibalism; however, Disease Considerations these control methods should be viewed as cruel and unacceptable procedures. These procedures are pain- ful, cause permanent loss of tissue, may heal improp- Gallinaceous birds are susceptible to a wide variety erly or become infected and cause a change in social of viral, bacterial, mycoplasmal, parasitic, chlamy- ranking. The bill is not only important for the uptake dial, rickettsial and fungal agents (Table 45. Infor- of food, but also has sensory functions, and is neces- mation on these diseases may be found in the appro- sary for preening. In most cases, cannibalism can be successfully prevented by cor- recting deficiencies in the birds’ environment; how- Nutritional Diseases ever, once feather picking is initiated, some birds Vitamin C deficiency does not occur in most birds; never stop. In these cases, affected birds should be however, it has been reported in Willow Ptarmigan separated from the remainder of the flock. Usually all but the out- weeks of life, and has to be augmented by the intake ermost two primaries and the innermost three secon- of vitamin C from natural food plants (eg, blueberries). The client had placed black shoe polish on the lesions, which is a commonly discussed lay treatment of poxvirus. Radiographs indicated gastroin- testinal impaction with cranial displacement of the heart (arrows) and intestinal tract (open arrow). With one wing trimmed, the bird is unbalanced and cannot gain speed during flight. Because the feathers will be replaced during the next molt, trimming must be repeated annually in adults. Other methods, like pinioning or cutting the short tendon of the extensor carpi radialis, make birds permanently unable to fly. Heterakis isolonche infections have been described in a number of free-ranging and captive Galliformes. This parasite causes typhlitis with clinical signs of infection including diarrhea, weight loss and depres- sion. The parasite invades the wall of the cecum and causes lymphocytic infiltration and granuloma for- mation. In pheasants, the nodules merge, leading to substantial thickening of the cecal wall. Hanssen I, et al: Vitamin C deficiency Melsungen, Neumann-Neudamm, Berlin, Verlag Paul Parey, 1992, pp mal Medicine.

In the comparison of hypoglycaemic effects of turmeric rhizomes extracts and glibenclamide cheap cialis extra dosage online visa, it was found that the hypoglycaemic effect of the extracts of turmeric rhizomes were the similar to that of glibenclamide buy cheap cialis extra dosage on-line. In the comparison between hypoglycaemic effect of aqueous extract of neem leaves and glibenclamide order cialis extra dosage discount, it was observed that the hyopglycaemic effect of aqueous extract of neem leaves was similar to that of glibenclamide. Nwe Nwe Yee; Khin Maung Maung; Khin Tar Yar Myint; Ye Hla; Zin Zin Oo; Thuzar Win; Le Le Win; Pa Pa Cho; Yin Yin Aye. This research is a “preliminary study” regarding the end product of digestion in vitro on traditional medicine. For the sake of simplicity a single medicinal plant is employed as the subject of study. It is based on the premise that different chemical agent would produce different pharmacological actions. Air dried eleven medicinal plants, were extracted either with water of 70% ethanol. These plants were also digested with intestinal digestive enzymes such as natural porcine intestinal enzymes, digestive aids enzyme pancreatin which includes protease, lipase and amylase. Digestive activities of amylase, lipase, protease and pepsin were evaluated according to the standard procedures. In vitro digestion of plant powder underwent gastric phase and intestinal phase of digestion. Ethanol and aqueous extract of crude powder, enzyme digested products and digestive enzymes were compared by thin layer chromatography. Compounds of the digested products represent major and prominent substance markers of both extracts and new substance markers were also appeared. Formation of same substance markers in enzyme digested products relative to ethanol or aqueous extract was 100% (n=6/6; n=11/11). Formation of different substance markers in enzyme digested products relative to ethanol of aqueous extract was 66. These simulated digested materials may represent the bioavailable products which can give pharmacological actions in human biological system. The bioavailable products of the particular plant resulting from this digestion tool can be used as more sensible new testable product of in vitro efficacy determination. It is concluded that this technique could serve as a test of bioavailability of traditional medicine which have undergone in vitro digestion: Beyond extraction technique. The effects of two different extracts of three medicinal plants namely Piper betle L. The extracts inhibited the contractions of guinea pig tracheal muscle induced by carbachol and histamine stimulation. The alcoholic extracts also inhibited the spontaneous movement of guinea pig ileum induced by histamine stimulation. These data suggest that the alcoholic extracts have antihistaminic and anti 5- hydroxytryptamine effects and the active principle may probably resides in the saponin glycoside component. C) (watery and 50% ethanolic extract) was studied in laboratory animals; albino rats of Wistar strain. The phytochemical analysis of watery and 50% ethanolic extract was done and results showed that both extract contained glycosides, flavonoids, steroid, polyphenol, tanninoids, saponin and reducing sugar. Acute toxicity study of both watery and ethanolic extract was done by using albino mice. The diuretic effect of watery and ethanolic extract was studied on albino rats of same sex weighing from 160-260gm. They were then put into metabolic cages after giving watery and ethanolic extract orally and urine was collected for 5 hours. Diuretic effect of both watery and ethanolic extract was carried out by using six dosage levels i. Significant diuretic effect was found in both watery and ethanolic extract of Alysicarpus vaginalis (D. The diuretic effect was found to have dose dependant effects for both watery and ethanolic extract. But the diuretic response produced by watery extract was greater than ethanolic extract for same dosage level. Urinary electrolytes content such as Na and + K in the urine of tested animals were determined by using digital flame analyzer. C) on albino rats was studied by giving watery extract 9g/kg body weight for one month period. In conclusion, a definite diuretic effect was seen with both watery and ethanolic extract of Alysicarpus vaginalis (D. The watery extract produced more powerful diuretic response than ethanolic extract of the plant. C) showed no demonstrable toxicity in both live animal and histology after autopsy. The aim of this is to determine the diuretic potential of Centella asiatica (-rif;cGm) on healthy volunteers. The whole plants were purchased from market and were extracted in Pharmacology Research Division. This extract was physicochemically and phytochemically standardized by using standard quality control method. Nine out of 18 healthy volunteers were put under the controlled setting of over night fasting. Fluid intake was restricted up to 250ml and only a standardized meal was allowed immediately preceding the drugs administration. On the next day the subjects were again put under these conditions and text extract (5g) was given orally. After one-week rest the same procedure was repeated with standrd furosemide 40mg orally. Urine volumes were measured and urinary electrolytes (sodium and potassium) were determined by using digital flame analyzer. Urinary sodium excretion of Centalla asiatica and furosemide showed significant increase (p<0. Urinary potassium excretion of Centella asiatica did not showed significant increase but the urinary potassium excretion of furosemides showed significant increase (p<0. May Aye Than; Than Than Lwin; Mu Mu Sein Myint; Mar Mar Myint; San San Myint; Aung Aung Maw; Nu Nu Win; Ei Ei Soe. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diuretic activity of Hydrocotyle umbellata Linn. The plants were collected from Yangon area and were extracted in Pharmacology Research Division. Urine volume was measured and urinary electrolytes (sodium and potassium) were determined by using digital flame analyzer. The watery extract 3gm/kg and 6gm/kg body weight treated groups showed significant increase in mean urine volume (p<0.