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Identiﬁcation of pre-leukaemic haematopoietic stem cells Criteria discount cipro online mastercard, Treatment Outcomes buy discount cipro online, and Reporting Standards for Therapeu- in acute leukaemia [published correction appears in Nature order cipro amex. Management of acute type of blasts in myelodysplastic syndromes is a clinically relevant promyelocytic leukemia: recommendations from an expert panel on biomarker in predicting response to growth factor treatment. Using quantiﬁcation of residual disease-directed therapy in acute myeloid leukemia. Semin the PML-RARalpha transcript to stratify the risk of relapse in patients Oncol. Prospective minimal 2013;2(2):e22943 residual disease monitoring to predict relapse of acute promyelocytic 28. Azacitidine fails to eradicate leukemia and to direct pre-emptive arsenic trioxide therapy. J Clin leukemic stem/progenitor cell populations in patients with acute my- Oncol. Lo-Coco F, Avvisati G, Vignetti M, et al; Gruppo Italiano Malattie 29. Human acute myelogenous Ematologiche dell’Adulto; German-Austrian Acute Myeloid Leukemia leukemia stem cells are rare and heterogeneous when assayed in Study Group; Study Alliance Leukemia. Retinoic acid and arsenic NOD/SCID/IL2R c-deﬁcient mice. Can we say farewell to cells from some acute myeloid leukemia patients with mutated nucleo- monitoring minimal residual disease in acute promyelocytic leukaemia? Coexistence of LMPP-like minimal residual disease in CBFB-MYH11-positive acute myeloid and GMP-like leukemia stem cells in acute myeloid leukemia. Yin JA, O’Brien MA, Hills RK, Daly SB, Wheatley K, Burnett AK. Normal hematopoietic stem Minimal residual disease monitoring by quantitative RT-PCR in core cells within the AML bone marrow have a distinct and higher ALDH binding factor AML allows risk stratiﬁcation and predicts relapse: activity level than co-existing leukemic stem cells. Jourdan E, Boissel N, Chevret S, et al; French AML Intergroup. MRD-directed risk stratiﬁcation transplants for acute myeloid leukaemia: predictive role of WT1 treatment may improve outcomes of t(8;21) AML in the ﬁrst complete expression. Quantitative assessment of tracking of minimal residual disease in JAK2-V617F-associated myelopro- minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia carrying nucleophos- liferative neoplasms: a joint European LeukemiaNet/MPN&MPNr- min (NPM1) gene mutations. Next-generation sequencing for nostic information in AML. Monitoring of minimal residual with FLT3-ITD or NPM1 mutations. Shayegi N, Kramer M, Bornhäuser M, et al; Study Alliance Leukemia identify acute myeloid leukemia patients with resistant disease. The level of residual disease based on mutant NPM1 is an mia. Detection and standardized WT1 assay to enhance risk stratiﬁcation in acute myeloid quantiﬁcation of BCR-ABL1 fusion transcripts by droplet digital PCR. Residual disease in AML, a target that can move in more 56. Leukaemia relapse after allogeneic than one direction. Heeney1 1Dana-Farber/Boston Children’s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, MA Iron is an ubiquitous metal of vital importance to the normal physiologic processes of many organisms. Over the last 2 decades, the discovery of mutations in genes leading to hereditary disorders of iron overload, iron deﬁciency, and iron maldistribution have accelerated our understanding of human iron homeostasis. This chapter provides an updated overview of the human iron cycle, regulation of iron homeostasis, and how perturbations in these homeostatic mechanisms lead to iron overload disease and provides strategies for the diagnosis of hereditary iron overload. This excess cellular iron deposition ultimately exceeds the capacity of iron-binding proteins, thereby leading to cellular damage, organ dysfunction, and eventually to clinical symptoms. Introduction Iron is an essential metal for many biological processes due to its Ferritin is the primary intracellular iron storage protein, which ability to transfer electrons in reduction/oxidation reactions. This forms multimeric complexes that facilitate iron sequestration and reactivity also provides the potential for great damage to biological mobilization depending on cellular need. In contrast, hemosiderin is systems if iron is not chaperoned through a tightly regulated an amorphous and poorly bioavailable iron-containing conglomer- network of iron-binding proteins and transporters. If the capacity of ate the presence of which is generally a pathologic sign of cellular these iron-binding proteins is exceeded, “free” iron is capable of iron excess. A soluble form of ferritin is also found in the plasma forming reactive oxygen species that may damage macromolecular and is expelled primarily from reticuloendothelial macrophages and cellular components such as nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids and the liver; however, its biological role remains unclear. Iron homeostasis in humans is maintained ferritin correlates with iron stores in many conditions; however, almost exclusively at the level of intestinal absorption because caution must be taken before interpreting in the setting of inﬂamma- evolution has not provided a physiologically regulated mechanism tion and cellular injury. The large size and electrochemical properties of iron require that it Iron homeostasis be transported across the mammalian cell membranes by speciﬁc transmembrane proteins that mediate cellular iron uptake (import) Iron recycling and storage and iron release (export). Although hepatocytes, intestinal mucosal The primary role of iron in mammals is to provide a binding site for cells, and macrophages possess speciﬁc carriers for iron import and oxygen in the heme moiety of hemoglobin. The average adult male export, erythroid cells only import iron and do not “release” iron has a total body iron content of 4g, 2/3 of which is contained in until they are lysed or phagocytosed within the reticuloendothelial the erythroid compartment. When iron stores are depleted through decreased dietary intake cyte cytoplasm as ferritin and the remainder is exported through the or intestinal absorption, increased requirements (eg, pregnancy) or enterocyte basolateral membrane into the plasma via the transmem- loss (eg, intestinal blood loss), erythropoiesis becomes iron re- brane iron exporter ferroportin (FPN; described more fully in the stricted and eventually results in the characteristic microcytic, Cellular iron export section). In contrast, erythropoiesis in most iron overload states is relatively unperturbed; however, Nonheme iron is imported into nonintestinal cell types from the HFE hemochromatosis is associated with increases in hemoglobin, plasma by the transferrin (TF) cycle (for review, see Chen and 202 American Society of Hematology Paw6). Almost all plasma iron exists bound to the abundant hepcidin leads to enhanced intestinal absorption and macrophage glycoprotein TF. Each TF molecule binds 2 Fe3 iron atoms with iron release, elevated plasma iron levels, and iron loading. The TF cycle begins with Hepcidin exerts its central role in iron homeostasis through its iron-loaded plasma TF binding with high afﬁnity to TF receptor 1 effect on FPN, the only known receptor for hepcidin and cellular (TFR1) on the cell surface and being endocytosed. Hepcidin binds to FPN at the cell surface, resulting then acidiﬁed, prompting the release of iron from TF and the empty in endocytosis and lysosomal degradation,19 blocking of iron TF and TFR1 return to the cell surface and are available to repeat the efﬂux into the plasma, hypoferremia, and iron-restricted cycle again. The unbound Fe3 iron in the acidiﬁed endosome is erythropoiesis. Clinically, plasma hepcidin concentration is modulated by several “regulators. It is unclear whether intestinal heme absorption uses The physiologic regulation of hepcidin expression is controlled at membrane-bound transporters or endocytic uptake. Although a responsive gene-1, (HRG-1), initially identiﬁed by homology to great deal remains to be elucidated regarding the molecular control heme transporters found in Caenorhabditis elegans. Most intracellular heme will have its iron liberated Hepcidin regulation by plasma iron and tissue iron stores is by hemoxygenase, allowing storage in ferritin or export via FPN. In the of cellular detoxiﬁcation and transfer of heme between cells. The sensor for iron repletion is not nearly as clear, but (MRP-5)13 have been implicated as heme exporters.
Was the duration of follow-up reasonable for investigated events? DRIs 500 mg cipro amex, AIIRAs cipro 1000mg without prescription, and ACE-Is Page 135 of 144 Final Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project References 1 order cipro discount. Center for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, 2001. Current methods of the US Preventive Services Task Force: a review of the process. DRIs, AIIRAs, and ACE-Is Page 136 of 144 Final Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Appendix D. Excluded trials 2=Wrong population, 3=wrong intervention, 4=wrong population, 5=wrong publication type, 6=wrong study design Excluded trials Exclusion code Head-to-head trials Acbay O. Effects of low-dose losartan treatment on persistent 4 microalbuminuria in normotensive type 1 diabetic subjects. Newly diagnosed and 6 previously known diabetes mellitus and 1-year outcomes of acute myocardial infarction: the VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion (VALIANT) trial. Alcocer L, Fernandez-Bonetti P, Campos E, Dominguez-Henkel 2 R, de la Fuente JJ, Segovia-Ayala C. Clinical efficacy and safety of telmisartan 80 mg once daily compared with enalapril 20 mg once daily in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension: results of a multicentre study. Is losartan as 4 effective as enalapril on posttransplant persistent proteinuria? Effects of valsartan and 2 perindopril combination therapy on left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic arterial stiffness in patients with essential hypertension. Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme 4 inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, and their combination on microalbuminuria in normotensive patients with type 2 diabetes. Erythropoietin 2 levels in heart failure after an acute myocardial infarction: determinants, prognostic value, and the effects of captopril versus losartan. Usefulness of either or both left 6 and right bundle branch block at baseline or during follow-up for predicting death in patients following acute myocardial infarction. DRIs, AIIRAs, and ACE-Is Page 137 of 144 Final Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Excluded trials Exclusion code Bohm M, Baumhakel M, Probstfield JL, et al. Sexual function, 6 satisfaction, and association of erectile dysfunction with cardiovascular disease and risk factors in cardiovascular high-risk patients: substudy of the ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial/Telmisartan Randomized AssessmeNT Study in ACE-INtolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease (ONTARGET/TRANSCEND). Campo C, Segura J, Fernandez ML, Guerrero L, Christiansen H, 2 Ruilope LM. A prospective comparison of four antihypertensive agents in daily clinical practice. The effect of 2 valsartan and captopril on lipid parameters in patients with type II diabetes mellitus and nephropathy. Demers C, McKelvie RS, Negassa A, Yusuf S, Investigators 2 RPS. Reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the six-minute walk test in patients with heart failure. Effect of 4 angiotensin II receptor blocker on plasma levels of TGF-beta 1 and interstitial fibrosis in hypertensive kidney transplant patients. Double-blind comparison of eprosartan and enalapril 2 on cough and blood pressure in unselected hypertensive patients. Erley CM, Bader B, Scheu M, Wolf S, Braun N, Risler T. Renal 2 hemodynamics in essential hypertensives treated with losartan. Design of combination 6 angiotensin receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor for treatment of diabetic nephropathy (VA NEPHRON- D). Clinical Journal of The American Society of Nephrology: CJASN. QT dispersion has no 2 prognostic value in patients with symptomatic heart failure: an ELITE II substudy. DRIs, AIIRAs, and ACE-Is Page 138 of 144 Final Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Excluded trials Exclusion code Gansevoort RT, de Zeeuw D, de Jong PE. Is the antiproteinuric 6 effect of ACE inhibition mediated by interference in the renin- angiotensin system? Effects of candesartan 4 and perindopril on renal function, TGF-beta1 plasma levels and excretion of prostaglandins in stable renal allograft recipients. Losartan versus ramipril in 5 the treatment of postrenal transplant erythrocytosis. Randomized controlled 3 crossover study of the effect on proteinuria and blood pressure of adding an angiotensin II receptor antagonist to an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor in normotensive patients with chronic renal disease and proteinuria. Krimholtz MJ, Karalliedde J, Thomas S, Bilous R, Viberti G. Comparison of angiotensin- 6 converting enzyme inhibitor alone and in combination with irbesartan for the treatment of heart failure. The incidence of cough: a comparison of 2 lisinopril, placebo and telmisartan, a novel angiotensin II antagonist. Effects of modulators 2 of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system on cough. Lacourciere Y, Lefebvre J, Nakhle G, Faison EP, Snavely DB, 5 Nelson EB. Association between cough and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors versus angiotensin II antagonists: the design of a prospective, controlled study. DRIs, AIIRAs, and ACE-Is Page 139 of 144 Final Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Excluded trials Exclusion code Larochelle P, Flack JM, Marbury TC, Sareli P, Krieger EM, 2 Reeves RA. Effects and tolerability of irbesartan versus enalapril in patients with severe hypertension. Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in 4 Combination With Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET): implications for reduced cardiovascular risk. Distinct time courses of renal 6 protective action of angiotensin receptor antagonists and ACE inhibitors in chronic renal disease. Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin- Aldosterone System. Comparative impact 2 of enalapril, candesartan or metoprolol alone or in combination on ventricular remodelling in patients with congestive heart failure. A randomised, double- 2 blind comparison of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist, irbesartan, with the full dose range of enalapril for the treatment of mild-to-moderate hypertension. Nielsen S, Dollerup J, Nielsen B, Jensen HA, Mogensen CE. Use of losartan in the 2 treatment of hypertensive patients with a history of cough induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II antagonists 2 and cough. Double-blind 2 comparison of losartan, lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide in hypertensive patients with a previous angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor-associated cough. DRIs, AIIRAs, and ACE-Is Page 140 of 144 Final Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Excluded trials Exclusion code Rossing K, Jacobsen P, Pietraszek L, Parving H-H.
Ptswith severepain(CHE O PS >8)receivedIV m orphine(increm entsof 0 buy cipro in united states online. M ildpain(CHE O PS 3-5)treatedwith oralacetam inophen10-15m g/kg generic 500 mg cipro with mastercard. Ptswith postop em esiswhilestill inhospitalreceivedrescue:IV ond0 buy cheap cipro 1000 mg on-line. If IV accessnolongeravailable,trim ethobenz am ide(Tigan),100-200m g prescribedforrectaladm inistration. O ralintakeperm itted butnotm andatorybeforedischarge(criteriaincludedafullyawakeptwhorecogniz edtheparents,with stablevitalsigns,andwhowasfreefrom pe N ausea,asubjectivefeeling of em esis,notassessedinthisstudyduetoyoung ageof pts. AE s:"Therewerenodifferences intheincidenceof nonem etic AE s. Sukh ani Solidfoodsperm itteduntilm idnightbeforethedayof surgery,andclearliquidsperm itteduntil3h beforestartof theex pectedsurgery. All 2002 receivedoralprem edicationconsisting of m idaz olam 0. E ach patient SingleCenter receivedanacetam inophen30m g/kg suppository,fentanyl1m icrogram /kg IV,anddex am ethasone1m g/kg (m ax im um 25m g)IV beforethe startof surgery. Thisinform ationonlyincludestheH2H portionof thisstudy;theplacebogroup consistedof 50patientsandtheirdatawasnotincludedinthisabstraction. Preventionofpostoperative nauseaand vom iting:H ead-to-h ead trials A uth or Y ear A llow oth er R un-in/ Setting Design Exclusioncriteria Intervention m edication W ash out M ecklenburg 2006 Ptswereex cludedif theywere1)underthecareof a D olasetroniv12. Antiemetics Page 364 of 492 Final Report Update 1 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 9. Preventionofpostoperative nauseaand vom iting:H ead-to-h ead trials A uth or A ge/ Screened/ W ith drawn/ Y ear G ender/ Eligible/ L ostto fu/ Setting Eth nicity Enrolled A nalyz ed O th erpopulationch aracteristics M ecklenburg 2006 33. Preventionofpostoperative nauseaand vom iting:H ead-to-h ead trials A uth or Y ear Setting R esults A dverse Events M ecklenburg 2006 Antiemetics Page 366 of 492 Final Report Update 1 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 9. Preventionofpostoperative nauseaand vom iting:H ead-to-h ead trials A uth or Y ear Setting C om m ents M ecklenburg 2006 Antiemetics Page 367 of 492 Final Report Update 1 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 10. Q uality assessm entofth e h ead-to-h ead trials forth e preventionofpostoperative nauseaand vom iting A uth or Screened/ W ith drawn/ Y ear R un-in/W ash Eligible/ L ostto fu/ Setting Exclusioncriteria out Enrolled A nalyz ed A dults Dolvs O nd Birm ingham U nderthecareof am entalhealth-careprovider,physicalstatusASA classIII orhigher, N o/N o N R /N R /100 N R /N R /100 2006 pregnant,taking m edicationswith antiem etic propertieswithin48hoursbeforesurgery, SingleCenter presenting forinpatientsurgery,requiring adm issiontothehospitalforsurgicalreasons,not receiving generalanesthesia Browning Ptsex cludedif theywere<18,pregnant,receivedandASA physicalclassificationof ≥ III, N R /N R N R /N R /212 N R /N R /212 2004 ex periencedem esis24h priortoprocedure,orreceivedantiem etic m edicationor SingleCenter investigationalresearch drug 24h priortosurgery. Paech Ptsex periencing preoperativenausea,receiving m edicationwith antiem etic activityorwith N o/N R N R /N R /120 2/0/118 2003 contraindicationtononsteroidalanti-inflam m atorym edicationorepiduralanesthesiawere SingleCenter ex cludedfrom thisstudy. W om eninwhom anopenprocedureswasnotperform edorwho underwentunplannedbowelsurgerywereex cluded. Tang E x clusioncriteriaincludedpregnancy;activem enstruation;bodyweightm orethat50% above N o/N o N R /N R /135 0/0/135 2003 theidealbodyweight;vom iting orretching within24h beforetheoperation;adm inistrationof SingleCenter antiem etic orpsychoactivem edicationwithin24h beforesurgery;aprevioushistoryof severe (orunstable)cardiovascular,respiratory,m etabolic,endocrine,orneurologic disease;alcohol ordrug abuse;andim pairedrenalorhepatic function. Zarate Ptsex cludedif theyhadreceivedanantiem etic m edicationwithin24h beforetheiroperation, N o/N o N R /N R /200 0/0/200 2000 werepregnant,hadclinicallysignificantcardiovascular,neurologic,renal,hepatic, SingleCenter gastrointestinal,orendocrinologicaldiseases,hadahistoryof drug abuse,orwere>100% abovetheiridealbodyweight E rhan ASA classIII-IV;aged>70years;BM I >30;pregnancy;sm oking;signsof gastrointestinal, N R /noopiodis N R /N R /80 N R /N R /80 2008 endocrine,renal,hepatic orim m unologicaldisease;useof opioidsortranquilliz erslessthan1 ortranquilliz ers SingleCenter weekbeforetheoperation;treatm entwith steroids;historyof alocoholordrug abuse;history within1week of m otionsickness;preoperativediagnosisof gallbladderem pyem aandpreviousendoscopic of surgery sphincterotom yforcom m onbileductstones;andconversiontoopencholecystectom y. Antiemetics Page 368 of 492 Final Report Update 1 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 10. Q uality assessm entofth e h ead-to-h ead trials forth e preventionofpostoperative nauseaand vom iting A ttrition A uth or G roups Eligibility C rossover Y ear sim ilarat criteria C are provider Patients A dh erence L oss to Setting R andom iz ation A llocation baseline specified m asked m asked C ontam ination follow up A dults Dolvs O nd Birm ingham N R N R Yes Yes Yes Yes N R U nableto 2006 N R determ ine SingleCenter N R N R Browning Yes Yes Yes,although Yes Yes Yes N o U nableto 2004 nodatagiven N o determ ine SingleCenter N o N o Paech Yes Yes Yes Yes N o Yes Yes N o 2003 N o SingleCenter N o N o Tang Yes N R Yes Yes Yes N R ,butis Yes N o 2003 "doubleblind"N o SingleCenter N o N o Zarate Yes N R Yes Yes N R ,"double N R Yes N o 2000 blind" N o SingleCenter N o N o E rhan Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes N o N o 2008 N o SingleCenter N o N o Antiemetics Page 369 of 492 Final Report Update 1 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 10. Q uality assessm entofth e h ead-to-h ead trials forth e preventionofpostoperative nauseaand vom iting A uth or Y ear Intention-to-treat Postram dom iz ation C ontrolled group Setting analysis exclusions Q uality rating standard ofcare F unding A dults Dolvs O nd Birm ingham U nclear U nabletodeterm ine F air N o N R 2006 SingleCenter Browning U nabletodeterm ine U nabletodeterm ine F air Yes N R 2004 SingleCenter Paech Yes Yes,only2 F air Yes A sm allproportionof each studydrug was 2003 suppliedfreebytherespective SingleCenter pharm aceuticalcom panies(N ovartisfor trop. Tang Yes N o F air Yes Theclinicalresearch fellowshipswere 2003 supportedbydepartm entalresources. SingleCenter Thisstudywasalsosupportedbythe W hiteM ountainInstitute,anot-for-profit privatefoundationinL osAltos,California (D r. Zarate Yes N o F air Yes N R 2000 SingleCenter E rhan N R N o F air Yes N R 2008 SingleCenter Antiemetics Page 370 of 492 Final Report Update 1 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 10. Q uality assessm entofth e h ead-to-h ead trials forth e preventionofpostoperative nauseaand vom iting A uth or Screened/ W ith drawn/ Y ear R un-in/W ash Eligible/ L ostto fu/ Setting Exclusioncriteria out Enrolled A nalyz ed K ushwaha G astrointestinaldisorders,pregnancyorm enstruation,historyof m otionsicknessorprevious N R /N R N R /N R /125 N R /N R /125 2007 historyof PO N V,aged<10yearsor>60years. SingleCenter M eyer Ptswereex cludedforanyof thefollowing reasons:1)thepatientdeclinedparticipation,2)the N R /N R 559/351/92 N R /N R /92 2005 physicianresponsibleforpatientcareconsideredthestudynottobeinthebestinterestof SingleCenter thepatientforanyreason,3)thepatientwasallergic toeitherprim arystudydrug,or4)the patientwasunableto understandthestudy. K ortilla Ptsscheduledforpost-operativegastric suctioning orptswhohadingestedanydrug with N R /N R N R /N R /518 1/3/514 1997 antiem etic efficacywithin24h beforesurgery. O therex clusioncriteriaincludedclinically M ulticenter significantcardiac orliverdisease,abnorm alprestudyserum potassium levels,obesity(40% aboveidealbodyweight),nauseaandvom iting within24h priortosurgery,previoustreatm ent with dolasetronm esilate,useof anyinvestigationaldrug within30daysof dolasetron adm inistration,orknownalcoholabuse. G ranvs O nd B h atnagar Ptswith gastrointestinaldisease,thosewhowerem enstruating,orthosewhohadreceived N o/N o N R /N R /90 0/0/90 2007 anyantiem etic m edicationwithin24hoursof thesurgery D ua Ptswith knownstom ach disorders,historyof heartburn,m otionsickness,perviousPO N V, N one/N o N R /N R /60 N R /N R /N R 2004 loweresophagealsphincterdisorders,m enstruation,uncontrolledhypertension,poorly SingleCenter controlleddiabetes,orpre-operativeem esislessthat12h priortosurgerywereex cluded. G an Ptswereex cludedif they1)hadknownhypersensitivityof contraindicationtostudy N o/N R N R /N R /210 34/0/176 2005 m edications,2)hadchronic nauseaandvom iting orex periencedretching,vom iting,or M ulticenter m oderateorseverenauseainthe24h beforeanesthesia,3)hadreceivedanantiem etic drug oradrug with antiem etic propertiesduring the24h beforeanesthesia,4)hadabodym ass inde ≥ 36 5) erepregnantorbreastfeeding or6)hadaconditionreq iring chronic opioid Antiemetics Page 371 of 492 Final Report Update 1 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 10. Q uality assessm entofth e h ead-to-h ead trials forth e preventionofpostoperative nauseaand vom iting A ttrition A uth or G roups Eligibility C rossover Y ear sim ilarat criteria C are provider Patients A dh erence L oss to Setting R andom iz ation A llocation baseline specified m asked m asked C ontam ination follow up K ushwaha N o N R Yes Yes N R N R N o N o 2007 N o SingleCenter N o N o M eyer Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes N o 2005 N o SingleCenter Yes N o K ortilla N R N R Yesbutfor Yes N R N R Yes N o 1997 weight N o M ulticenter N o N o G ranvs O nd B h atnagar Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes N o 2007 N o Yes N R D ua Yes N R Yes Yes Yes N R N o N R 2004 N o SingleCenter N o N o G an Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes N o 2005 N o M ulticenter Yes N R Antiemetics Page 372 of 492 Final Report Update 1 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 10. Q uality assessm entofth e h ead-to-h ead trials forth e preventionofpostoperative nauseaand vom iting A uth or Y ear Intention-to-treat Postram dom iz ation C ontrolled group Setting analysis exclusions Q uality rating standard ofcare F unding K ushwaha N R N o Poor Yes N R 2007 SingleCenter M eyer Yes Yes;51/143= 36%;".. Q uality assessm entofth e h ead-to-h ead trials forth e preventionofpostoperative nauseaand vom iting A uth or Screened/ W ith drawn/ Y ear R un-in/W ash Eligible/ L ostto fu/ Setting Exclusioncriteria out Enrolled A nalyz ed Janicki Ptswereex cludedfor:pregnancyorbreastfeeding,useof propofolform aintenanceof N R /N R N R /N R /159 6/3/150 2006 anesthesia,allergytostudym edication,neuroax ialanesthesia,historyof vom iting within24 HersheyM edical hoursbeforeanesthesia,historyof cardiaarrhythm iaand/orhistoryof antiarrhythm ic therapy, Center andhistoryof vom iting from anyorganic etiology. N aguib Patientswhowerereceiving drugsknowntohaveantiem etic effects(such astricyclic N o/N A N R /N R /132 0/0/132 1996 antidepressants,scopolam ine,phenothiaz ines,loraz epam ,corticosteroids,and N R trim ethobenz am ides. Ptswerealsoex cludedif theyhadex periencednauseaorvom iting of it they hadtakenantiem etic treatm entinthe48h beforesurgery. N oprem edicationwasgiven K h an Ptswith severesystem ic orendocrinediseasewhom hadpredisposing factorsfordelayed N R /N R N R /N R /120 N R /N R /120 2005 gastric em ptying,such asdiabetes,chronic cholecystitisorneurom usculardisorders G eneralhospital O ksuz Thosewith cardiovascular,pulm onary,renal,hepatic orneurologic diseaseswereex cluded. N R /N o N R /N R /75 N R /N R /75 2007 Aswellasthosereceiving drugsknow tohaveantiem etic effects,such astricyclic antiem etic N R antidepressants,scopolam ine,phenothiaz ines,laraz epam ,corticosteroids,and within48hours trim ethobenz am ides;hadex periencednauseaorvom iting,orwhohadreceivedantiem etic of surgery treatm entinthe48hoursbeforesurgery. W h ite Ptswith historyof allergytoanyof thepotentialstudym edications,pregnancy,breastfeeding, N R /N o N R /N R /220 15/N R /205 2006 activem enstruation,vom iting orretching within24h beforetheoperation,adm inistrationof antiem etic or M ulticenter antiem etic orpsychoactivem edicationwithin24h beforesurgery,ahistoryof severe(or psychoactive U SA unstable)cardiovascular,respiratory,m etabolic,endocrineorneurologic disease,active m edication alcoholordrug abuse,aswellasim pairedrenalorhepatic function. Q uality assessm entofth e h ead-to-h ead trials forth e preventionofpostoperative nauseaand vom iting A ttrition A uth or G roups Eligibility C rossover Y ear sim ilarat criteria C are provider Patients A dh erence L oss to Setting R andom iz ation A llocation baseline specified m asked m asked C ontam ination follow up Janicki Yes N R Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes L ow 2006 N o HersheyM edical Yes Center N o N aguib N R N R Yes Yes N R ,"double N R Yes N o 1996 blind" N o N R N o N o K h an Yes N R Yes Yes N R N R N R N R 2005 N R G eneralhospital N R N R O ksuz Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes N o 2007 N R N R N R N R W h ite Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes N o 2006 N R M ulticenter N R U SA N R O ndansetron: O DT vs IV Dem iraran Yes N R Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes N R 2005 N R SingleSite N R Turkey N R Antiemetics Page 375 of 492 Final Report Update 1 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 10. Q uality assessm entofth e h ead-to-h ead trials forth e preventionofpostoperative nauseaand vom iting A uth or Y ear Intention-to-treat Postram dom iz ation C ontrolled group Setting analysis exclusions Q uality rating standard ofcare F unding Janicki N R N O F air N o R ocheL aboratories 2006 HersheyM edical Center N aguib Yes N o F air Yes N R 1996 N R K h an N R N o Poor Yes N R 2005 G eneralhospital O ksuz N R N o F air Yes N R 2007 N R W h ite N R N o F air N o W hiteM ountainInstitute 2006 M ulticenter U SA O ndansetron: O DT vs IV Dem iraran N R N o F air Yes N R 2005 SingleSite Turkey Antiemetics Page 376 of 492 Final Report Update 1 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 10. Q uality assessm entofth e h ead-to-h ead trials forth e preventionofpostoperative nauseaand vom iting A uth or Screened/ W ith drawn/ Y ear R un-in/W ash Eligible/ L ostto fu/ Setting Exclusioncriteria out Enrolled A nalyz ed Pirat Ptswith historyof m otionsicknessorPO N V,preoperativepruritus,treatm entwith opioidsor N R /N o N R /N R /150 N R /N R /150 2005 antiem eticswithin48hoursof surgery,hypersensitivitytoondansetron,m orphine,or antiem etic N R bupivacaine,andcontraindicationfororrefusalorspinalanesthesia. Casesinwhich dural within48hours puncturecouldnotbeperform edoropioidswererequiredtocontrolintraoperativeor of surgery postoperativepainwerealsoex cluded. A prepitantvs ondansetron Diem unsch E x clusioncriteriaincludedpregnancy/breastfeeding status,needforanasogastric ororal- N o/no 1004/N R /922 56/0/304 for 2007 gastric tube,useof neuroax ial-orpropofol-m aintainedanaesthesia,vom iting within24h prophylactic safety and 866 M ulticenter beforesurgeryorof anyorganic aetiology,allergytoanym edicationstobeusedbefore antiem etics operationorintra-operatively,pre-establishedneedforintensivecareorstep-downunitcare within24h for efficacy afteroperation,evidenceof diseaseorhistoryof illnesswhich according totheinvestigator beforesurgery renderedthepatientinappropriateforthestudy,abnorm alpreoperativelaboratoryvalues (aspartateam inotransferase>2. M edicationsknowntoinduce CYP3A4wereprohibitedwithin30daysof thestudystartandCYP3A4inhibitorswere prohibited7daysbeforestartof study. G an Patientswhowerepregnantorbreast-feeding,undergoing surgeryrequiring routine N o/no 903/N R 805 72/0/766for 2007 placem entof anasogastric ororal-gastric tube,orreceiving spinalregionalorpropofol- prophylactic safety,733for M ulticenter m aintainedanesthesia. Ptswhom werevom iting of anyorganic etiology,hadvom itedforany antiem etics efficacy reasonwithin24hoursof surgery,orhadabnorm allaboratoryvaluesasspecifiedbythe within24hours protocol(alanineam inotransferaseof aspartateam inotransferase>2.