By D. Ugolf. Augusta State University.
It is used often in clinical laboratories Education and management/Laboratory operations/2 to improve a process such as test turnaround time order tadalafil 10 mg amex. To accomplish this purchase 20 mg tadalafil visa, the lab manager measures the time it takes for specimens to be collected and 65 order tadalafil australia. The map is used to identify areas of instrument data link, centrifuged, and placed on waste where eﬃciency can be improved. Speckled directed against nucleoprotein; although they are mainly nonpathological, they are useful markers for Immunology/Identify microscopic morphology/ active disease. Plate 2 shows the electrophoresis of serum restricted electrophoretic mobility usually located proteins on a high-resolution agarose gel at in the γ or the β region. Sample 1 (in lane 1) is a normal serum accumulation of identical immunoglobulin molecules control. Which sample can be presumptively or fragments secreted by a malignant or benign classiﬁed as a monoclonal gammopathy? Chemistry/Evaluate clinical and laboratory data/ Protein electrophoresis/3 537 538 Chapter 10 | Photomicrographs and Color Plate Examination 3. Plate 3 shows a densitometric scan of a control Answers to Questions 3–6 serum for protein electrophoresis. C The fraction marker between the α2- and β-fractions these results, what is the most appropriate initial is marked improperly. Repeat the electrophoresis run using fresh α2- macroglobulin, which partially splits the control serum α2- band into two subfractions. Report the results, provided that the previous β-band may contain three subfractions run was in control corresponding to β-lipoprotein, transferrin, and C. In this scan, the valley between the redraw the scan α2-subfractions was selected incorrectly as the D. Calculate the concentration of each fraction in boundary between the α2- and β-fractions. This grams per deciliter fraction marker should be placed at the next valley to the right and the scan redrawn to determine the Chemistry/Identify sources of error/Densitometry/3 area under the α2- and β-fractions correctly. C Using high current, β lipoprotein can be separated on a high-resolution agarose gel at pH 8. The α-2 Chemistry/Evaluate clinical and laboratory data/ macroglobulin is usually anodal to the haptoglobin. Plate 5 is a densitometric scan of a serum protein increases in the α1- and α2-fractions and a decrease in electrophoresis sample. This pattern is most concentration of each fraction and reference limits often caused by increased production of acute phase are shown below the scan. What is the correct reactants such as α1-antitrypsin and haptoglobin that classiﬁcation of this densitometric pattern? Polyclonal gammopathy associated with chronic is seen in myocardial infarction and other forms of inﬂammation acute tissue injury, the early stage of acute infection, B. Following electrophoresis, the Protein electrophoresis/3 proteins in lane 1 are precipitated and ﬁxed by 6. Plate 6 shows an agarose gel on which overlaying sulfosalicylic acid onto the gel. Te gel contains the chain is applied to the gel over the lanes as labeled same serum sample as number 6 shown in Plate 2. IgM λ 2 reacted with anti-γ (anti-IgG), and the proteins in Chemistry/Evaluate clinical and laboratory data/ lane 5 reacted with anti-κ. Lane 5 also contains a faint Immunoﬁxation electrophoresis/3 restricted band anodal to the IgG band. This band is not present in lane 2 (does not contain γ chains) and represents free κ light chains. Plate 7 shows the electrophoresis of hemoglobin Answers to Questions 7–10 (Hgb) samples performed on agarose gel, pH 8. Plate 8 shows the electrophoresis of Hgb samples there is no normal β-gene, and the patient can be on acid agar gel, pH 6. Te sample order is the classiﬁed as a homozygote for Hgb S, D, or G which same as for plate 7 with the A, S, C control migrate to the same position on agarose gel at a hemolysate in lanes 2 and 10. Hgb S can be diﬀerentiated electrophoretic mobility of sample 7 as seen in from Hgbs D and G by performing electrophoresis both plate 7 and plate 8, what is the patient’s on agar gel at pH 6. On plate 8, Chemistry/Evaluate clinical and laboratory data/ sample 7 shows a single large band that migrated Hemoglobin electrophoresis/3 toward the anode at the same position as the S band 9. The phialides produce Microbiology/Identify microscopic morphology/Fungi/2 jet-black conidia that obscure the vesicle surface, forming a radiated head. Plate 10 is a photomicrograph of a fungal slide produce septate macroconidia, not vesicles with culture stained with lactophenol cotton blue, phialides. Plate 11 is a photomicrograph of a fungal slide Answers to Questions 11–15 culture stained with lactophenol cotton blue, 400×. Plate 12 is a bronchoalveolar lavage sample annellides on short conidiophores with oval conidia concentrated by cytocentrifugation and stained that are tapered at one end. Plate 13 is a fecal specimen seen under 400× using same size but have a clear (hyaline) shell, flat on brightﬁeld microscopy. They are often bile stained and may have a thick shell with a coarse Microbiology/Identify microscopic morphology/ covering (corticated). This egg demonstrates a Parasites/2 contracted embryo, leaving space between the 14. Plate 14 is a fecal specimen unstained seen under shell and the embryo at the opposing poles. Threadworm (Strongyloides) produces Parasites/2 similar ova, but these hatch in the intestine, releasing 15. Plate 15 is an iodine-stained fecal specimen the rhabditoid larvae that are found in the feces. Te Pinworm (Enterobius) ova are approximately the plate shows the ovum of which parasite? Whipworm Microbiology/Identify microscopic morphology/ Parasites/2 Chapter 10 | Photomicrographs and Color Plate Examination 541 16. Plate 16 is an unstained fecal specimen seen Answers to Questions 16–20 under 400× using brightﬁeld microscopy. Fasciola, Paragonimus, and Fasciolopsis all produce large, yellow-brown operculated ova. Opisthorchis viverrini small shoulders adjacent to the operculum of Microbiology/Identify microscopic morphology/ Paragonimus ova. What condition is spirochetes are sometimes seen in the blood of suspected from this ﬁeld?
If phenol coefficient is equal to one purchase tadalafil cheap online, the new chemical agent is equal to phenol in efficacy buy genuine tadalafil on-line. If phenol coefficient is more than one buy discount tadalafil 10mg online, the new chemical agent is more effective than phenol. Active against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and acid-fast bacilli. Causes conformational alteration of proteins (unfolding of polypeptide chain) resulting in irregular looping and coiling of polypeptide chain. Acids like benzoic acid, citric acid and acetic acid are helpful as food preservatives: extending storage life of food products. Chemical agents that modify functional groups of proteins and nucleic acids Heavy metals 1. Hydrogen peroxide (3%) Used for cleansing of wound, disinfecting medical-surgical devices and plastic contact lenses. Formaldehydde Glutaraldehyde Ethylene oxide Formaldehyde 37% aqueous solution form is named as formalin. Dry heat : It is less efficient and requires high temperature and long period heating than moist heat. Incineration : It is an efficient method of sterilization and disposal of contaminated needles, syringes and cover slips at high temperature b. Red heat : Inoculating wires, loops and points of forceps are sterilized by holding them in the flame of a Bunsen burner until they are red hot. Flaming: Scalpels and neck of flasks, bottles and tubes are exposed for a few seconds, but it is of uncertain efficacy. Hot Air Sterilizer (Oven): it is essential that hot air should circulate between the objects being sterilized and these must be loosely packed and adequate air space to ensure optimum heat transfer. Tyndallization : Intermittent steaming (Fractional sterilization) 0 Steaming of the material is done at 100 c for 30 minutes on three consecutive days. The principle is that spores which survived the heating process would germinate before the next thermal exposure and then would be killed. It is used for sterilizing heat sensitive culture media containing materials such as carbohydrates, egg or serum. Pasteurization: It is the process of application of heat at temperature of 100 0 0 62 c for 30 minutes(Holder method) or 72 c for 15 seconds (Flash method) followed by rapid cooling to discourage bacterial growth. Autoclaving : Steam under pressure It is based on the principle that when water is boiled at increased pressure, hot saturated steam will be formed which penetrates and gives up its latent heat when it condenses on cooler objects. Hot saturated steam in autoclaving acts as an excellent agent for sterilization because of: 1. Uses: Sterilize solid and fluid culture media, gowns, medical and surgical equipment. Time –Temperature-Pressure level relationship in moist heat sterilization (autoclaving) Temperature Time Pressurelevel 0 2 121 c 15 minutes 15 lb/inch 0 2 126 c 10 minutes 20 lb/inch 0 2 134 c 3 minutes 30 lb/inch Methods of controlling sterilization 1. Color change of autoclave tape from blue to brown-black indicates completesterilization. Biological indicator : Use of paper strips impregnated with spores of Bacillus stereothermophilus. Put the paper strip in the culture medium after autoclaving and observe for germinating bacteria to check for growth. It prevents active multiplication of bacteria by decreasing the metabolic activity of bacteria. Radiation : Ioning and ultra violet radiation Ioning radiation includes χ ray, γ ray and β ray. Ultra violet radiation has less quantum energy with low penetrating power than ionic radiation. Spore forming bacteria are more resistant to ionic and ultra violet radiation than vegetative bacteria because of: 1. Anti-Microbial agents and Sensitivity Testing Anti- Microbial drugs Anti-microbial drugs include. Chemical anti-microbials Antibiotics: Definition: Antimicrobial substances produced by living micro- organisms. Chemical anti-microbials Definition: synthetically produced anti-micorbial compounds. Anti-microbial drugs show specific toxicity to microbial cells due to differences in cell envelope, protein and enzymes to host cells. Those damaging cell membrane leading to loss of cell contents and then cell death. Those inhibiting protein synthesis and then arresting bacterial growth - aminoglycosides - tetracycline - erythromycin - chloramphenicol - clindamycin 4. Those inhibiting nucleotide synthesis - sulfonamide - trimethoprim 105 Resistance of bacteria to anti-microbial drugs Production of enzymes that destroy or inactivate anti-microbials Eg. Developing an altered metabolic pathway that bypasses the reaction inhibited by the drugs Eg. Developing an altered enzyme that can still perform its metabolic function but is much less affected by the drug Eg. Wide spread sensitization resulting in hypersensitivity and anaphylactic reaction, and drug rashes. Changing normal microbial flora leading to “super infection” due to over growth of drug-resistant micro-organism. A filter paper disk containing measured quantities of drug is placed on a solid medium that has been seeded with the test organisms. Following over right incubation, the diameter of the clear zone of inhibition surrounding the deposit of drug is taken as a measure of the inhibitory power of the drug against the particular test organism. Bacterial strains sensitive to the drug are inhibited at a distance from the disk whereas resistant strains grow up to the edge of the disk. Dilution Sensitivity Tests - Agar dilution tests - Broth dilution tests Graded amounts of antimcorbial agents are incorporated into liquid or solid bacteriology media. Nowadays the above tests are either time consuming or cumbersome, so the advent of microdilution both solution tests has simplified the method and permit a quantitative result to be reported, indicating the amount of a given drug necessary to inhibit or kill the test micro-organism. Components of medium - media composition components enhance or inhibit bacterial growth. Size of inoculum: the larger the bacterial inoculum, the lower the apparent sensitivity of the organisms. Length of incubation: short exposure of moisture to the drug inhibits their growth but does not kill them; longer exposure of moisture to a drug gives a chance for resistant motants to emerge. Metabolic activity of moistures - actively and rapidly growing micro-organisms are more susceptible to drug action than those in the resting phase. Techniques of routinely used antimicrobial sensitivity testing (disc diffusion tests) Required: - sensitivity testing media - Anti-microbial discs - Control strains - Turbidity standard 109 Sensitivity testing media: The commonly used media is Mueller- Hinton agar. For pathogens requiring enriched media like Neisseria gonorrhea, Heamophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae, it is necessary to add blood to (heat it if needed) sensitivity testing agar.